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Re: Да бе да,кво ше кажеш за тези писания,а
    #354148 - 03.07.2004 02:24 [Re: Анонимен]

World's first cities appear along banks of Tigris and Euphrates. They make up Uruk culture, with principal city Uruk, Biblical Erech. This culture invents writing and lunar calendar, uses metals, develops medicine, builds monumental architecture.

3450 BC In Uruk culture no unified government evolves, and they remain independent for almost one thousand years

3200 BC Sumerians are making use of wheeled transportation

3100 BC Cuneiform writing emerges in Mesopotamia. This form of writing, involving wedge-shaped characters, is used to record first epics in world history, including Enmerkar and Lord of Aratta and first stories about Gilgamesh

2700 BC Sumerian King, Gilgamesh, rules city of Uruk, which has now grown to a population of more than 50,000. Gilgamesh is subject of many epics, including Sumerian "Gilgamesh and Enkidu in Nether World" and Babylonian "Epic of Gilgamesh"

2320 BC Sargon conquers independent city-states of Sumer and institutes central government

2130 BC Sumer regains its independence from Akkadian rule, though it does not revert back to independent city-states. At this time, Sumer is ruled from important city of Ur

2100 BC Sumerian King List is written, recording all kings and dynasties ruling Sumer from earliest times. According to this list, Eridu is named as earliest settlement, a claim that seems to be confirmed by archeological evidence

2000 BC 2000-1600 BCE: Old Babylonian period begins after collapse of Sumer, probably due to increase in soil salt content thereby making farming difficult. Weakened by poor crops, lack of surplus goods, Sumerians are conquered by Amorites, situated in Babylon

2000 BC Consequently, center of civility shifts north. Though they preserve most of Sumerian culture, Amorites introduce their Semitic language, an early ancestor to Hebrew, into region

1900 BC Epic of Gilgamesh is redacted from Sumerian sources and written in Semitic language. Thus, though Gilgamesh was Sumerian, his Epic is Babylonian

1750 BC Semitic group of nomads migrate from Sumer to Canaan and then on to Egypt. They are led by a caravan trader, Patriarch Abraham, who will become father of Israel nation

1766 BC Eventually recorded Chinese traditions tell of Kia, 17th member of old Chinese Hia dynasty, dethroned due to evil ways. His son Sunni went with 500 members of his Hia nationality to Hun relatives. Hia still has many common words with Altaic languages

1766 BC Oldest Türkic words are in Chinese annual chronicles noting cultural and political events. Hsiung-nu words tanry, kut, byorü, ordu, tug, kylych etc are oldest monuments of Türkish language. State rulers' endoethnonym is Hun, Türkic "man, male, people"

1763 BC Amorite King, Hammurabi, conquers Sumer. He writes Code of Laws containing 282 rules including principles of "an eye for an eye" and "let buyer beware". It is one of first codes of law in world history, predated only by Laws of Lipit-Ishta

1750 BC Hammurabi empire lasts for another one hundred and fifty years, until 1600, when Kassites (Kas=Türk. ‘mountain’), a non-Semitic people, conquer most of Mesopotamia with help of light chariot warfare

1500 BC 15-9 centuries BC Frame culture. Kurgans.

1500 BC First evidence of widespread organized pastoral nomadic economy in Bronze Age Andronovo culture (mid-second to early first millennium B.C.), found throughout steppe. Settlements of up to forty rectangular, semi-subterranean dwellings found at Atasu, Karkaralinsk and Alekseevka in Kazakhstan. In Dzhezkazgan and Zyryanovsk are found mines from this period

1390 BC First elements of Hun state in highlands of Ordos

1200 BC First Hun state in highlands of Ordos

1200 BC Cimmerians (Turk. Kam-er, Kim-er - "river man", akin to "Suv-ar", "Bulak-ar" ("Bolkar, Bulgar"), "Sub-ar", "Suv-ar", "Shum-er") begin to occupy Pontic Steppe

800 BC Assirian chronicles report about Cimmerian invasion to countries of Transcaucasus and Near East. Beginning of Scythian domination in East-European steppes. Assyrians called Cimmerians Gimirrai (Hebrew Gomer; Gen. XI)

800 BC Plinius of Scythian origins: "Ultra sunt Scytharum populi, Persae illos Sacas in universum appellavere a proxima gente, antiqui Arameos"

800 BC Hesiod, 7th Century BC, writes: Inventors of bronze working were Scythians. Early Mesopotamian name of metal Zubur, indicates that northern Mesopotamian Subartuan's or a people of region were indeed inventors of process.

800 BC Herodotus on origin of Scythians from area of eastern Anatolia: "nomad Scythians living in Asia (once only Near East) were attacked by Sarmatians and were forced to cross Araxes (modern Turkish Aras) and wander to land of Cimmerians."

800 BC Greeks associated invention of iron working with northern Mesopotamian and Anatolian Scythian tribes like Kalybs tribe which gave steel its name in many early European languages. In time Sarmatians and Yazig absorb Kalybs.

800 BC Kalybs are absorbed by Sarmatians and Yazig, via Yazig cavalry taken by Romans to Britain and were foundation of King Arthur myths of Ex-Calibur, and sword myths, which are all early Anatolian traditions.

800 BC Sword myths traditions are all early Anatolian, are also found in Hun and Magyar traditions and mentioned by Herodotus amongst early Scythians.

722 BC Pi-van moves capital to the East to Loi or Tsyaju, supposedly because capital with some Chjou territory was under "barbarians" because of disturbances. Later Tsin rulers Syan-gun and Ben-gun captured this territory. Only a part of land returned to Chjou

710 BC In late 8th century BC Cimmerian and Scythian troops fought against Assyrian king Sargon II, and at end of 6th century BC conflict arose between Scythians and Achaemenian King Darius I

700 BC Scythians replace Cimmerians in Steppe region

700 BC Cimmerian tombs of their kings were shown on Tyras (Dniestr), and on south-east another group threatened Assyrians

700 BC Scyths (Assyrian Ashguzai, Heb. Ashkenax, fr. Türk. As - “nomad”, Güz, Kish, Kiji - “tribe, people”) whom Assyrians welcomed as allies and used against Cimmerians, against Medes and even against Egypt. Hence references to Scyths in Hebrew prophet (Jer. IV.3, VI. 7).

685 BC 685 - 643 BC Rule in Tsi of Huan - hun

679 BC Huan - hun organizes a congress of rulers inTsi, taking that right from Chjou

659 BC 659 - 621 Rule of Mu-hun in Tsin

653 BC Scythian interregnum in Median Dynasty history. Herodotus dating of this event remains uncertain but traditionally it is seen as falling between reigns of Phraortes and Cyaxares and as covering years 653 to 625 BC.

633 BC Scythian invasion to Transcaucasus and Fore-Asia.

600 BC F. Altheim "Das Alte Iran" writes that Iranian Avesta's most archaic texts, Gathas, are still not understood by today's linguists.

600 BC R. Stiehlel writes, it is quite obvious that language of old Avesta is closely tied to ancient Altaic languages. Since newcomers to Iran joined older settled inhabitants often associated with Scythians, Türks and Finno-Ugrians, and borrowed much

600 BC Many of local people were Iranianized, today we call certain Scythian nations as Iraninan in origin. Much of Persian literature in Persepolis is not in Iranian but in aboriginals' Elamite language that up until last century was also called Scythian

600 BC About 500-600 BC Hungarians moved south to steppes, where, according to linguistic evidence, they took animal breeding from Chuvash people, as a high proportion of words specific to agriculture in Hungarian language are of Chuvash origin

521 BC Darius I "the Great" succeeds Cambyses as emperor of Persia. He engages in many large building programs, including a system of roads. In addition, he institutes first postal system

520 BC 6th cent. BC Invasion of Transoxiana by Achaemenids of Persia under Darius I and Cyrus

516 BC Darius' expedition (516 - 513 BC) against Scythians in N. Pontic is described in great detail by Herodotus, who provided first and perhaps most penetrating description of Europian great nomad empire

510 BC Hecataeus (6th century B.C.) map showing Scyths

512 BC Scythian war with army of Persian king Darius I Hystaspos invading Scythia

500 BC Herodotus mentioned Sarmatians living to north of Scythians of N. Pontic regions and not close to their old homelands along Araxes, Sarmatians must have been a long time thorn in Scythian side.

500 BC Herodotus: "Anyone who does business with Scyths (Sakae) needs seven interpreters speaking seven languages"

500 BC Scythians who make this journey (via Budini (Beçen/Peçenek, Budun=Türk. “clan, nation, people”), Thyssagetae (Tis-Saka-it =Türk. outer Sakas), Iyrcae (Yürük=Türk. nomad), Argippaeans (Arik-bay=Türk. pure+ bay=rich man) communicate with inhabitants by means of seven interpreters and seven languages.

500 BC Sarmate (Sauromatae, Sarma-te=Türk. ‘with sac’) speak language of Scythia, live W of Palus Maeotis (Azov Sea). W of Tanais (Don) and fifteen days' journey N of Sarmate, dwell Budini, "blue-eyed and bright red-haired", whose territory is thickly wooded with trees of every kind

500 BC Persepolis inscription text is "Darius Hystapes (522-486) rex popularum bonorum posui. Hi adorationem igni mihi attulere: Choana, Media, Babilon, Asyria, Guthrata, Armenia, Cappadocia, Sapardia [Sabir], Hunae."

450 BC Herodotus World Map (ca. 450 B.C.) shows Agathirsi (Agach-ir=Türk. forest+people), Scythians and Massagets, Malanchleni, Neuri, Budini and Geloni, Thissagets and Jurcae

450 BC Herodotus (IV, 105) reports about wolf cult at Neuri (Nevrs) along Hypanis and W. of Borisphen to Tyras together with Budins. Later wolf was on gold bukle fr Niconia by Dniester
450 BC In Issyk fifth-century B.C. Sak's kurgan in town in Kazakhstan near Lake Issyk (Issiq), in a royal tomb, in 1970 is found a flat silver drinking cup jar with Türkic‘Issyk’ Inscription in Türkic alphabet, attesting that Sak-Massagetan tribes spoke Türkic

450 BC In Issyk kurgan all human skeletons found in graves showed race characteristics very similar to today's Anatolian Turks, with no trace of Mongoloid features at all (Larousse)

400 BC Sarmatians take leadership over Scythians.

350 BC Macedonian burials in kurgans

339 BC Macedonian raids to North in 339,335,331, 313 è 292 against Scythians and Celts. Celtic alliance with Scythians evidenced by Celtic artifacts in Scythian sites

339 BC Defeat of Scythians led by king Ateios in battle with army of Philip of Macedonia. Death of Atheios.

338 BC Macedonian barbarian Philip II defeated united Greek states at battle of Chaeronea in beginning of August 338 BC and appointed himself "Commander of Greeks"

336 BC Philip II of Macedonia (382-336 BC), king of Macedonia, is buried in kurgan per Macedonian custom. Greeks viewed Macedonians as barbarians (non-Greeks), and consequently treated them in same manner in which they treated all non-Greeks.

331 BC In battle of Gaugamela with Alexander Macedonian, Darius had Scyths (35K Cavalry) and Bactrians in his army

318 BC First historical document connected with Huns is Chinese-Hun treaty signed in 318 BC

310 BC Sirac(i), a Sarmatian tribe occupied Kuban region north of Caucasus shortly before 300 B.C. (Tr. Sarig=yellow, blond, Sirs are ansestors of Cumans/Kipchaks)

300 BC Türkic language splits into 2 branches, Oguz (Eastern) and Ogur (Kipchak) (Western). Oguz 'z', 'y,i', (Oguz, yilan, Yaik) Ogur 'r', 'd, dj', (Ogur, djulan, Djaik)

300 BC From Chinese sources Alans are listed as one of four Hunnish tribes (Xu-la, Lan, Hiu-bu, Siu-lin) most favoured by kings of Eastern Huns (Mao-dun/Mete and his son Ki-ok/Kök) of 3rd century B.C.

300 BC In 300 BC Neapolis Scythia In Crimea (Simpheropol area) was capital of Royal Scyths

300 BC Earliest occurrence of Parthian name in form of Aparnoi or Parnoi in Turan. According to Armenian historians who served Armenian dynasty of Parthian origin, Parthian Arsac who founded dynasty was of white Hun (Ephtalite) origin

290 BC Hun state consists of 24 clans, some of them: Kuyan (Jack rabbit) Lan (Orchard) Suybu (West Tribe) Suylyanti Tsulin Taychi Uyti Tsetszuy…

290 BC Hun state leader is titled Great Shanüy - "Chenli gydu shanüy" - "Son of endless sky" Succession is from father to eldest son.

247 BC Start of Parthian Dynasty (ab. 247 B.C.-A.D. 226) which was one of longest in history

246 BC In Antiochus 11th year Parthians shook off Macedonians, and Ephtalite king's son is new ruler. All nations of Eastern and Northern Asia accepted his rule. King Arsac had four sons. One received Ephtalites, second Hindus, third Parthians, fourth Armenians.

231 BC Parthian Arsac, lost to Persian king Selecud and retreats amongst Aspasiac Scythians, near Aral Sea. With their aid he reconquers his empire

230 BC Touman (Tumen, 240 - 210 BC), of clan Suylyanti with a bull totem establishes Hunnic Empire

214 BC Chinese ruler Si Huang Ti (259-210 BC) builds Great Chinese Wall against attacks of Huns

209 BC Touman died (Tumen, 240 - 210 BC), accession to throne of Maotun (Batur, 210 - 174 BC), founder of Hun Empire. Expansion of Hun Empire.

204 BC HUN EMPIRE
204 B.C - 216 A.D
Founder - Mete (Bagatir, Maotun, Batur)
Area - At north, Siberia; south, Tibet - Kashmir; east, Pacific Ocean; west, Caspian Sea, (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)

200 BC Emergence of Huns (Hsiung-nu) on western borders of China.

200 BC A strong stone and mortar wall surrounds capital Neapolis Scythia of Royal Scyths in 200 B.C. Of note is a mausoleum that contains seventy-two richly furnished tombs, which are probably representative of royal Scythian house

177 BC Mete Khan (Maotun) letter to Chinese government describes that 26 nations are in Türkish sate and all of them became "nations stretching bow-string", or Huns

174 BC Kokkhan (174-161 BC), Huns (Hsiung-nu) attack Tocharians (Yüeh-chih), driving them from Gansu

161 BC Kunkhan (161 - 126 BC)

150 BC Rise of Hun Empire's puts pressure on territory of Iran dislodging many Scythian nations who were pushed west, including Saka-Uraka whose kings' title was Makar.

150 BC Migration of a part of Sarmats (Bulgarians) from Northern Caucasus to Cis-Caucasus.

141 BC 141-128 BC Tochars (Yüeh-chih), fleeing from Huns (Hsiung-nu), overrun Greco-Bactrian kingdom, which is renamed Tocharistan.

126 BC El Chishi (126 - 114 BC)

124 BC Asi (Yazig), Pasiani (Budini/Beçen/Peçenek), Tocharian, Sabir (Sabaroi) tribes break into Sogdiana and Baktria. In next five years two Parthian emperors loose their lives in wars. They also later conquer Sakauraka tribe.

121 BC Chinese, under General Ho Chu-ping, defeat Huns (Hsiung-nu).

114 BC Ovi (114 - 105 BC)

103 BC Tribe Pu-ku/Bu-gu is repeatedly mentioned in different Chinese sources from 103 BC up to 8-th century AD. They inhabit W and E parts of Central Asia, N and NW of Tien-Shan, Semirech'e and W of rivers Syr Darya and Amu Darya.

103 BC One of tribal lords of Pu-ku - Sofu sulifa Kenan Bain, bears title sulifa, attested later among Dagestan Bulgarians.

100 BC Diodorus Siculus, 1st c. B.C. Scythians "lived in very small numbers at Araks River....they gained country in mountains up to Caucasus, in lowland on coast of Ocean (Caspian Sea) and Meot Lake (Azov Sea) and other territories up to Tanais River.

100 BC "They won for themselves a country "behind Tanais River up to Egyptian Nile River" (Diodorus II, 43).

75 BC Scythian nomads from Central Asia conquered Kabul River Valley, with Taxila and Pushkalavati as their twin capital cities in Gandhara, from Greek kings of Bactria

56 BC First split of Hun Empire into Western and Eastern branches Qoghoshar (Khukheniy I) (56 - 36 BC)

54 BC Chinese chronicles mention Ogurs as separate people in vicinity of Edisu

53 BC Parthian nomads from east of Caspian Sea conquered Kabul River Valley, with Taxila and Pushkalavati as their twin capital cities in Gandhara, from Scythians. After defeating Greeks in 53 BC, Parthians ruled northern Pakistan area. Parthians promoted art and religion, developed Gandhara school of art with Greek, Syrian, Persian and Indian art influences

51 BC Huns (Hsiung-nu) split into two hordes, with Eastern Horde subject to China.

50 BC Dionisios Periegetos says, already in 1st century BC, Huns dominate over all Caspian lands

6 AD Illirian rebelion (6-9 AD). Introduction of Roman provincial rule in Pannonia

20 Strabo (c.64 BC - A.D. 20): Massagetae, [meaning hero-tribe] who also live in Balk are Kush. According to Armenians Baktria is land of Kush and Balkh is its capital city, where great Arsac set up his throne.

20 Strabo: Parthian Scythians became Persian and Armenian kings from which even Byzantines received capable rulers. In Armenia Arsac dynasty ruled for about 600 years.

21 Rebellion in Thrace and Gaul

35 35­36 AD Alanian participation in Ibero-Parphian war on side of Iberia.

48 WESTERN HUN EMPIRE
48 - 216 A.D
Founder - Panu
Area - area over present Central Asia

50 Kujula Kadphises unites (Yüeh-chih) to establish Kushan Empire, stretching from Persia to Transoxiana to Upper Indus.

50 1st century AD (first half) Alans (Alani =Tr. ‘field’) mentioned by written sources of Ancient Rome (?) for first time.

50 Apostle Paul (Saul) begins spreading Christianity to the gentile world. Start of Christianity as a world event

64 Kushana king Kujula, ruler of Central Asian nomads, overthrew the Parthians and took over Gandhara. Kushans extended their rule into northwest India and Bay of Bengal, south into Bahawalpur and short of Gujrat, and north till Kashghar and Yarkand. They made their winter capital at Purushapura, City of Flowers, now called Peshawar, and their summer capital north of Kabul

72 Alans invade Transcaucasus

78 78-144 Reign of King Kanishka over Kushan Empire (territory extended to include Tarim Basin), with Buddhism as dominant religion.

93 Western (Northern) Huns suffer a major defeat from Mongols (Hsien-pi) and start westward migration (93-c.380).

97 Chinese armies reach Caspian Sea.

106 Jornand recalls that Nocopol on Danube was founded by Trayan after victory over Sarmats

124 Dionysius Periegetes (the guide) Orbis terrae descriptio map showing Huns (Unni), Caspii, Massagets, Sacii, Alani, Scyths, Hyrcanii, Sarmats, Taurii

124 Dionisus Periegetes (end of 1st - beginning of 2nd c.) maps and talks that on Northwestern side of Caspian sea live Scythians, Uns, Caspians, Albanians, and Kaduses, of Huns living next to Caspian Sea Sak (Gr. Sacae)=Türkco-Persian saka=water carrier

128 Kanishka, the greatest of Kushans, ruled from 128 to 151 AD

135 Alanian campaign in Transcaucasus and Media

139 Dionisus Periegetes: Huns living next to Dniepr in Eastern Europe. Calls them Khuni (Chuni) and Suni. (Khuni is clan/national designation while Suni is probably from Senü, their ruler)

139 Ptolemy (83?-161? AD) writes that in European Sarmatia ‘below Agathyrsi (Akatsirs, Tr. Agach-ers ‘forest people’) live Savari (Türkic Suvars), between Basternae (Tr. Bash-t-er 'head people') and Rhoxolani (Tr. Uraksy Alans, i.e. ‘Alans-farmers’) live Huns

150 Mid. 2nd century Alans defeated by Roman army at Olvia (Olbia)

155 End of Huns as a major power in inner Asia.

200 ca. AD 200-370: Invasions by Goths., who colonize and mix with local populations. Tervingi branch consolidated their realm between Dniestr and Danube, and became known as 'Visigoths'. Greutungi dominated west of Dniestr and became known as Ostrogoths

213 Roman war with German and Danubian tribes. Caracalla defeats Alemans

214 Edessa becomes a Roman colony

216 End of HUN EMPIRE
204 B.C - 216 A.D
Founder - Mete (Bagatir)
Area - At At north, Siberia; south, Tibet - Kashmir; east, Pacific Ocean; west, Caspian Sea (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)

216 End of WESTERN HUN EMPIRE
48 - 216 A.D
Founder - Panu
Area - area over present Central Asia

226 End of Parthian Dynasty (ab. 247 B.C.-A.D. 226), it was one of longest in history

234 Roman war against Alemans. Maximin, a Thracian, is proclaimed Emperor by Pannonian army (ñ 235 to 238)

236 Roman war against Sarmatians and Dacians

236 Gothic invasion across Danube and invasion of Dacian Carps

260 In 60's of 3rd c, Caucasian Huns served in Persian army

266 Unification of China. Hun rebellion is suppressed

275 EUROPEAN HUN EMPIRE
275 - 454 A.D
Founder - brothers Muncuk, Oktar, Rua & Aybars
Area - S Russia, Romania, N Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Czechoslovakia, S& C Germany. From E France to Urals; from N.Hungary to Byzantine Empire
(Area - 4,000,000 Km2)

290 In 90's of 3rd c, Armenian sources write about Hun's wars in Trans-Caucasus (N.Caucasus )

293 Sasanid (Persian) inscriptions dated by 293 mention name of one of Türkic khakans from Caucasus

300 Tele left early Huns Horde, keeping patriarchal relations and nomadic life. They were not Sinadized. They move in steppes on carts with high wheels.

300 Tele have 12 clans, each governed by aldermen, all living in peace

300 Genealogy: Gaogüys =>Tele =>15 tribes =>
1 Uange (Uygurs)
2 Seyanto (Sir + Yanto)
3 Kibi
4 Dubo (Tubalar)(Dabo)(Tele)
5 Guligan (Kurykan)(Yakut)
6 Dolange (Telengits)
7 Bugu (Pugu)(Uygurs)
8 Bayegu (Baiyrku)(Uygurs)
9 Tunlo (Tongra)(Uygurs)
10 Hun
11 Sygye (Uygurs)
12 Husye 13 Higye
14 Adye(Eduz)
15 Baysi (Barsil)

300 Sirs and Türks live at Ordos

300 Bulgars and Khazars are blood relatives, with a common or similar language.

301 In 4-7c. Seyanto (Sir + Yanto) occupied steppes between Mongol Altai and E. Tianshan

304 Huns and Syanbinians conquered from China Khan Empire northern part and established a sequence of kingdoms. Toba tribe led predominantly Chinese population.

309 Hun's raid eased by rebellion of (Chinese) people against officials

309 Intrigues of Emperor Huai-di against Sym Yuy. Aliance with Tabgach Khan Ilu against Huns

311 Defeat of Sym Yuy. Fall of Loyan, Huns take Chanan

312 Small Syanbinian tribe with Khans from Muyun family moved from southern Manjuria to west and settled in proximity of lake Kukunor. They fought Tibetans successfully and Tobases unsuccessfully.

312 Syanbinian tribe with Muyun Khans were organized into kingdom Togon and became vassals of Empire Wey.

312 Chinese displace Huns from Chanan

320 Muyun Khoy becomes Great Shanuy

321 Tsu Ti dies, and Chinese advance against Huns stopped

325 China loses lands north of river Huai

334 First mention of Bulgars, they live in basin of Tanais and Cuban

336 Beg. 4th c. Invasion of Armenia by Hun-Maskuts (Gr. Massagets), together with Sakas, led by king of Massagetae Sanesan (Tr. Sen-esen=you+storming (man))

336 Türkic names of Hun rulers
Karaton (kadadon= dress)
Mundjuk, Attila's father (bondjus = bead, tirquose)
Attila (Itil= birthplace, or Ata-il = father of country)
Illek, Attila's son (Il-Ek = country fortress)
Dengizik, Attila's son (Den(g)iz = Sea)
Irnek, Attila's son (=young soldier)
Aibars, Attila's uncle (= bars, lion)
Oktar, Attila's uncle (= )
Ary Kan (aryg-kan = beautiful quinn)
Basyk
Kursyk
Atakam
Eshkam

336 Türkic names of Hun rulers (cont'd)
Nation
Agacheri (Forrest people)
Shar (sary - ak, = yellow - white)
Ogur (Ok-gur = ten federates)
Potential link of ruling family with Asian Tankhu (king)


Notes.

One of Chinese derogatorymonikersfor Huns, with a meaning “ferocious slaves”. There were more respectful names for Huns in Chinese, like “western nomads”, etc. Chinese also had plenty of derogatory terms for themselves, but, unlike “Hsiung-nu”, these terms are not used to designate Chinese in the scientific literature.

One of a number ofversionsthat can be found in the literature.



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Re: Да бе да,кво ше кажеш за тези писания,а
    #354149 - 03.07.2004 02:29 [Re: Боила]

BULGARS
Bulgars 4000 BC-336 AD
Bulgars 337-499 AD
Bulgars 500-599 AD
Bulgars 600-799 AD
Bulgars 800-1099 AD
Bulgars 1100-1299 AD
Bulgars 1300-1922 AD


337-499 AD
DATELINE

Time
Events

337
Hun' s vanguard reached Tanais, displaced Ostgoths, who displaced Visigoths and Sarmats into Roman territory. Death of Constantine the Great leads to formal division of Roman Empire into Western and Eastern Empires

338
Tele tribes subjugated by Tobases Khan. They live west of Ordos

350
Ügülüy from Syanbinian cavalry organizes a band and joints neighboring nomads.

350
Tele are living of animal husbandry, in a weak confederation of tribes, fighting for their independence.

354
Earliest known European record about Bulgarians is "Anonymous chronograph", a list of tribes and peoples in Latin. He mentiones a certain 'Ziezi ex quo Vulgares'.

360
Huns cross Volga and attack Alans. Part of Alans retreat to N. Caucasus, part is absorbed in Hun's Horde, part retreat to N. Donets. Most likely, after conquest a part of Bulgars joins Huns, and a part remains

360
Uhuans and Syanbins become subjects of Fu Tsyan II, who moves them beyond Chinese Wall

363
In 363, Armenian, Roman and Persian authors write about necessity of fortifying Caucasian passages, especially Derbent passage, against Huns, who make repeated raids and campaigns against Persians, Armenians and peoples of Middle East

364
Goth's invasion of Thrace

367
Valens twice crossed Danube with his troops and devastated much of Goths' territory

370
Huns defeat Goths (Germans)

370
Romans hired Hunnic warriors as auxiliary troops and paid them a yearly tribute, partly for services rendered and partly as a bribe to keep them from raiding provinces

370
Huns were a genetic hybrid between Mongoloid, Altaic (Siberian), and Central Asian Türkic stocks. Typical Hunno-Bulgars probably had a squarish face, high cheekbones, and slanting eyes. Term 'Bulgar' comes from Türkic 'bulgha' = 'to mix'. These nomadic horsemen groups were mainly composed of As - Ossetians, Eastern Antes - Iranian-Slavic blend, Khazars - a mixed Türkic group, and a people known as Sarmatians, an Iranian group.

370
Huns defeat Ostrogoths. Death of Germanarix. Vinitari (Vitimir?) becomes new Ostrogothic king. Ostrogoths retire to Lower Dniepr. Geruls and Burgundians part of Ostrogoths.

370
370-376 War between Alans and Goths.

370
Huns control N. Pontic, Tanais, and N. Caspian steppes. Alans who live there join Huns.

370
Guylüchoy, successor to Ügülüy, organized a horde, move along all Khalka to Khingan, subordinated to Tobas Khans, paid tribute in horses, sable and martens.

370
Guylüchoy life and organization are primitive and organized by regiments of 1000 men. No changes for 200 years. All efforts went to rob neighbors.

370
2 migrations of Bulgarians from Caucasus to Armenia. 1st during Armenian ruler Vaharshak, immigrants of Vh' ndur Bulgar Vund, lands named Vanand.

370
2nd migration during Armenian ruler Arshak, disturbances ... in land of Bulgars, many of whom migrated and settled south of Kokh, because of expansion of Huns in E European steppes

372
After crushing, or compelling alliance of, various nations Alpilzuri, Alcidzuri, Himari, Tuncarsi, Boisci, Huns reached Alani, Don Alans crushed by Huns. Part of Alans joins Huns in advance to Europe

374
Retreating to Dnieper Ostrogoths fight with Ants living there. After a number of battles and defeats, Ostrogoths captured Antian King Boz (Bus, Bog?) and executed him

375
Jordanes, XLVIII, 249. Battle between Alans under Balamber and Ostrogoths at river Erac (present Tiligul). After death of Vitimir, young Vidirix bacame a King. Alatey and Safrac ruled under his name. Ostrogoths retreated to Dniestr.

375
Ammianus Marcellinus: After his (Hermanaric) departure, Vitimir was made a King, and resisted Halans for some time… But after many defeats he suffered, he was subdued by arms and died in battle

376
Huns captured Atilkuzu (Bessarabia). Alans remained in Dacia. Vestgoths and Ostrogoths, defeated by Huns and Alans, retreated to Danube.

376
Vestgoths and Ostrogoths Goths fled from Huns, asked help from Emperor Valens, who allowed them cross Danube to guard borders, and entered Roman Empire. Poor control of crossing, extractions by officials caused rebellion. Rome faced Gothic invasion.

376
Goths who crossed Danube became Visigoths, and Goths who remained behind and became subjects of Huns were designated Ostrogoths. Ostrogoths who cross Danube joined Vestgoths. Entire Alaric's Visigothic population is estimated to be around 100,000 people

377
Hunnish-Bulgarian association during period of Hunnish hegemony in Central Europe. Attilla's combat power consists mostly from mounted Bulgarian troops. Attila' dynasty is continued for Bulgars.

377
A detachment of Huns crossed Kerch straight from Caucasus, displaced Goths in Crimea to center of peninsula, and went to join main army in Dniestr estuary

378
At a victory celebration Bulümar (360??---378) dies, his son Alyp-bi becomes Khan of Huns (378-390)

378
Oldest son of Hun's Bulümar (Balamber) Alyp-bi defeats Sadumes (Scandinavians), crossed Danube, and with Visigoths, Ostrogoths and Alans defeats 80K Byzantium army at Andrianopol

378
Valens acted alone and engaged a massive Gothic force of estimated 200,000 warriors near Adrianople. Result was a catastrophe, Valens army was completely annihilated, he perished (9 August AD 378). His body was never found

380
Western (Northern) Huns in westward migration (93-c.380) take possession of lower Tanais river valley and north of Meotida

380
New Roman Emperor Theodosius settles Gothic problem diplomatically. Goths become federates, and Alans move north.

380
380-395 Alans clear Dacia and Atilkuzu from Vestgoths, Taifals, Gepids, Burgunds and other peoples. Huns went to Pontic steppes

386
Creation of Tabgach-Northern Wey Empire

390
Tele move north, to Djungaria, and spread in West Mongolia to Selenga.

390
Alyp-bi (378-390) dies, is buried on Kuyantau mountain (current Kiev) under Baltavar stone withΨ sign. His son Aybat (Eur. Mundzuk) becomes Khan of Huns (390-434)

395
Hun campaign in Cis-Caucasus and even raid Syria. Alans, Ostrogoths and Geruls, retreated earlier to Cis-Caucasus, subordinate to Huns

395
Rebellion of Alarics and Visigoths

400
Syanbian language, ancient Mongolian, becomes inter-tribe language for Türk's allied tribes. "Türk" = "strong", "powerful".

400
Alans and Bulgars live between Itil and Don

400
In Danube area, evidently, arrived Huns. They killed Byzantian federate Gain, expelled by rebels from Constantinople.

400
Arab and Persian authors mention town Varachan (Belenjer), capital of Hun state, in Sulak valley near Upper Chir-Ürt in Dagestan. Later authors refer to Balanjar as native land of Khazars.

400
Ancestors of Khazars among Huns called selves Basils (Bas, head; il/el, people--ruling people)

402
Ruler of Western Empire Stilihon allied with Huns and Alans, who help Stilihon to fight off attack of German tribes.

405
New help by Huns and Alans to Stilihon to fight off attack of German tribes (Suewes).

406
Alans join Vandals in invasion to Gallia (modern France).

406
Radagais leads Vandals, Suebis, Kuads, Burgonds, Saxsons, Almants, is captured at Fiesol by Huns under Ulduz (?-410?), supposedly, ruler of right, eastern wing of Hunnish army, allied with Romans, and is executed (Aug 406). Vandals cross Rein, retreat to Gaul

409
Alans and Vandals moving from Gaul to Spain.

409
Uldiz, ruler of right, eastern wing spread from Balkhash to Volga, tells to ambassador of Byzantium, governor of Thrace, "I can capture all lands to sunset"

410
Syanbinian Jujan Khan Shelun Deuday died (?-410), his brother Khulüy (410-414) becomes Khan.

410
Syanbinian Jujan Khan Shelun Deuday unlimitedly controlled steppes from Khingan to Altai. Tele were subjugated. Central Asian Huns, after winning battle at river Ili, recognized suzerainty of Syanbinian Jujans and bought peace by submissiveness.

410
Huns attack Roman Empire and sack Rome. Huns introduce pants to Roman Empire, which replace traditional togas

410
After death of Uldiz (?-410?) Karaton (410-422?) becomes Khagan of Huns. In 412 Karaton receives Byzantian ambassador Olimpiodors. Karaton rules mostly eastern part of empire. No information till 422

412
Byzantian embassy to Huns in Pontic area

414
Syanbinian Jujan Khan Khulüy (410-414) died, his cousin Datan (414-?) becomes Khan

418
Syanbinian Jujanes penetrated Tarbagatay area

420
Toba tribe unites Northern China into a kingdom known under Chinese name of Empire Wey

420
Huns settle in middle Danube. Rulers were Roila (Rugila), Mundzuk and Oktar

420
WHITE HUN (EPHTALITE) EMPIRE
420 - 552 A.D
Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur)
Area - Half of Northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan, Eastern Turkestan but also significant parts of Central Asia (Tokharistan, Chaganian, Samarkand, Bukhara, Kesh, Ferghana, Chach (Total Area - 3,500,000 Km2)

420
Ephtalites were divided into White Chions and Red Chions

424
Jujan Khan Datan (?-424) with 60K cavalry invades Empire Wey. In 425 Tobases of Empire Wey expel them to behind Gobi

430
Major campaign by Tabgach Empire Wey army, under Emperor Tay-u-di (Toba Dao) disperses Syanbinian Jujanes. Datan disappears, leadership taken by his son Udi (430-445). Udi agrees to pay tribute to Empire Wey

430
Huns reach Rein. Yabgu Roila (Ruga) keeps friendly relations with Rome, lending troops to suppress Bagauds in Gaul

432
After Oktar, Ruga (432-437) becomes Hun Khagan

434
Akatzirs are subjects to Huns under Hunnish Khan Ruga (432-437)

434
Aybat (Eur. Mundzuk) (390-434) dies. His son Attila becomes Yabgu of W. Huns (Kara Bulgar) (434-445). His son Bleda becomes ruler of E. Huns (Ak Bulgar) (434-445).

434
Roman bishop of Margus crossed Danube and robbed royal Hun graves, stealing their burial treasures. War broke out

434
Attila forces Eastern Roman Empire to recognize the superiority of Huns. Constantinople gives many concessions in treaty of Margus: Hun merchants’ rights, military alliance conducts, the return of Hun fugitives, and increases tribute to 700 pounds of gold to be paid each year

434
Possibly during Byzantine campain Ruga (Rua, Roila, Rugila) dies (?-434), Atilla and his brother Bleda are elected, his nephew Attila becomes ruler of left (western) wing of empire

437
Syanbinian Jujanes under Udi resume attacks on Empire Wey. In 439 Empire Wey counterattacks, without decisive battle. In 440 Udi attacks border and flees. Then again in 445.

439
In 439 Tobases had victory over Huns and joined Khesi to Wey Empire, Khan Ashina with 500 families fled to Syanbinian Jujanes and settled south of Altai mountains and produced iron for Syanbinian Jujanes.

439
An horde of warlike Syanbinians retreated to Tibet from Khesi. Coming to a rich, but disunited country, Syanbinian leader attracted Kyans, i.e. occupied a dominating position between ever-hostile tribes.

439
In Tibet, descendants of Syanbinian leader had title Tsenpo, meaning in between King and Head of Government, supported by Syanbinians who are the only real force in country.

439
Huns stand in Dunkhuan and battle against Shanshan

440
Atilla has a full control in N. Caucasus. Treaty with Persian Shakh Yazdagar

440
Hephthalites (White Huns, later known in West as Avars) move south from Altai region to occupy Transoxiana, Bactria, Khurasan, and eastern Persia

441
Huns are again on Danube border, took Singidun (Belgrad)

442
Paulus Diaconus and Fredegarius: Early 5-th c. - probably 422 AD Battle between Bulgars and Langobards in N. Carpathians
442
Ultimatum by Atilla to Theodosius II, who rejects it.

442
442-447 Huns invade Byzantium. Destruction of cities in Illiria and Thrace, capture and inclusion of vast territory in Hunnish state.

443
Peace between Theodosius II and Atilla. By peace of Anatolius (the mediator of the treaty negotiation) Romans were to pay 6,000 pounds of gold immediately, and yearly tribute set at 2,100 pounds of gold, and immediate release of Hun fugitives

444
Atilla, Kara Bulgar Yabgu, becomes Hun Kagan (445-453) upon death of Kagan Bled (434-445), the highest ruler from Caucasus to Danube. Per Priscus, Bleda had honor burial and three-day giant feast attended by all nobles in Kaganate

445
Syanbinian Jujan Khan Udi (430-445) died, his son Tukhechjen becomes Khan. Empire Wey undertakes punishment raids into steppes against Syanbinian Jujanes.

447
2-nd peace of Anatolius between Byzantiun and Huns. Big tribute to Huns. Hun commander Edeco assented to assassinate Atilla for 50 pounds of gold

448
Byzantian embassy to Atilla, described by Priscus. Byzantian attempt to organize Atilla's murder.

448
Akatzirs are reported by Priscus living near Black Sea and subjects to Huns. Attila (7) (437-453) installs Karidach (Kuridach) as Akatzirs Khan.

450
In written sources, Huns are identified with Scythians and Cimmerians, and specifically with "Royal Scythians". Scythian ethnonym "As-kishi", or its stem "as" is retained in written sources, especially old Georgian documents, in Huns' name as "ovs", "os"

450
Hunnish society attained progress thanks to contact with Roman civilization. In dwelling place of Onegesios, in Attila's court, for example, prisoner from Sirmium constructed baths

450
Priscus: "because Scythians are mixed and besides their own language, they try to speak language of Huns, or Goths or Ausoni, when some of them have to do with Romans"

450
Per Priscus, Sabirs conquered lands of Onogurs, Saragurs and Ugors in steppes around north-western Caspian coast.

450
Death of Theodosius II Flavy on a hunt (10.4.401). Markian, a son of a plain soldier, becomes Emperor, formally as a husband of Pulheria. 450 Markian refuses to pay tribute to Huns.

450
Huns were called Os in 5th century, during their raids in Georgia in time of king Vakhtang. Word "ovs" of Georgian sources is actually a slightly deformed name of a Türk tribe "As"

451
Attila heads great army, size of Hunnic army has been variously estimated at between 300,000 and 700,000, crossed Rhine and swept across Europe looting, pillaging, and burning. Aetius battles Attila on Rein in June at Battle of Chalons on Catalaunian Plains

451
451.06.15 "Battle of Peoples" at Catalaun ravine near present Trua. On Atilla's side are Huns, Geruls, Ostrogoths and part of Franks, on Aecius side Roman legions recruited from Gaul and Germany, Vestgoths, Burgunds, Franks, Armorician Alans headed by San. No definite result.

451
Jordanes: In a direct fight battled strongest troops on both sides, without surprise attacks. Mighty tribes were killed, 165K on each side, plus 15K Gepids and Franks who fought at night, killing each other, Franks on Roman side, Gepids on Hun's side

451
Atilla prepares a campain in Italy

452
Italian campain of Atilla, ending with peace. In spite of large conquests, Atilla agreed to peace because of epidemy in his army.

453
Atilla (434-453) weds young German Ildico. Next morning he is found dead. End of Hunnish hegemony in Central Europe. Atilla is given state funerals. Ellak becomes Hun Kagan (453-454).

453
Vestgoths, headed by Torismud, son of killed in Catalaunian Plains Theodorix, defeat Huns and expell them from their territory.

453
Coalition of Germanic clans defeats and kills Ellak in battle at Nedao.

453
Gepids under Ardaric battle Huns under Ellak. Tingiz (Dengizik/Diggiz) and Bel-Kermek (Hernach) retreat to a military camp and defend for 2 years. Negotiations allow Tingiz and Bel-Kermek leave with Bulgars, remaining defenders are surrendered to Ardaric

453
To Ellak, eldest of brothers, given Sabir ulus, to 2-nd son Tengiz given Kutrigur ulus, to Bel-Kermek, 3-rd son, given Utigur ulus

453
454-565 Gepids control Pannonia. Gepidian reign is established in Dacia (current day Transylvania)

454
Several Hunno-Bulgar uluses outside of three main Hunnic hordes joined with Byzantines with obligation of military services, and were given land to settle as protectors against their northern cousins

454
Coalition of Germanic clans defeats and kills Ellak in battle. Sabirs without Ellak retreat to East, through Pontic Steppes, to Daghestan. Kutriguri and Utiguri under Bel-Kermek (Hernach), fell back to 'Ugol' place that corresponds to Bessarabia

454
454 - 455 Rebelion in Hun's state. German tribes of Gepids, Rugs, Geruls rebelled. Battle at Nedao (Nedava, tributary of Sava). Coalition was composed of Gepids, Scires, Suaves, Ruges, Herules and Ostrogoths

454
Jordanes: You could see Goth with lances, Gepids mad with sword, Rug breaking spears in his wounds, and Svev bravely acting with bat, and Hun with arrow, Alan with heavy, Gerule with light weapons.

454
Atilla's son Ellak tried suppress rebelion, was defeated and died in battle. Remains of Ellak's army retreated east of Carpathians. Two other sons Dengizik and Ernak remained in Dacia and Bessarabia. Alans led by ruler Kandak were forced to go to Dobrudja

454
Ostrogoths take part on losing side in battle at Nedao where Gepids under Ardaric crush last Hun coalition. Ostrogoths become sovereign and settle in Pannonia

454
End of EUROPEAN HUN EMPIRE
275 - 454 A.D
Founder - brothers Muncuk, Oktar, Rua & Aybars
Area - S Russia, Romania, N Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Chekoslovakia, S& C Germany. From E France to Urals; from N Hungary to Byzantine Empire (Area -4,000,000 Km2)

455
Tingiz and Bel-Kermek (Hernach)(455-465) lead Bulgars, on way from Pannonia to estuary of Buri-chai (Dnieper) are attacked by Gallidjians (Scandinavians). Tingiz is killed. Bel-Kermek raises red flag of Asses and breaks through to lower Dnieper.

455
Bel-Kermek, 3rd son of Atilla, leads Bulgars to settle between Crimea and estuary of Buri-chai (Dniepr), and proclaims a beylik of Altynoba, with Bel-Kermek as Baltavar (Lord of Beys) (455-465).

455
Bel-Kermek with Hun's Sadagariem and other tribes remain in Dobrudja (Little Scythia) and Lower Moesia. Later known as Sacromontizies and Fossatizies.

455
Two other Attilla's sons, Emnetzur and Ultzindur lead from Crimea tribes of Ultzindzur and Ultzindgur to Byzantium on right bank of Danube

455
Jews from Armenia and Persia begin immigration to North Caucasus

459
Hephthalites conquer Kushans and invade India

460
Bulgarian tribes Ultinzur, Bittugur and Bardor of Pannonia join Altynoba, with Bel-Kermek as Baltavar (Lord of Beys). Huns adopt name Bulgars, Bulgars use Hun's language.

463
Ogur Türkic tribes, including Onogurs (Onoghur = 10 Ogur Confederation), Saragurs (White Türks) and Uturgurs (Utigurs) (Uturgur = 30 Ogur Confederation) cross Itil and enter Europe.

463
Priscus Rhetor: In 463 Byzantium was visited by an embassy of Saragurs, Urogs and Onogurs, who, dislodged by Avars drive to west, conquered conquered lands of Akacirs and asked for a union with Byzantium

463
Destunis G.C.: Saragurs, Urogs and Onogurs sent embassy to Byzantine.They said that they were expelled by Savirs, who fled Avars, who fled from people living on shores of ocean. Saragurs subjugated Akacirs and want to become Roman federates

463
Gumilev suggests that after fall of Hun's Empire Bulgars take a lead and decimated Akacirs, finishing fall of Hun's Empire

465
Bulgars led by Bel-Kermek control lands of Akacirs and asked for a union with Byzantium

465
Altynoba's Bel-Kermek (455-465) dies, his older son Djurash Masgut becomes Baltavar (465-505).

465
Agaçeris crossed Caucasus and invaded Media. Agaçeris are included in Five Ogur confederation which also included Karluk, Kangly, Kalaç and Kipchak nations

468
Tengiz (Dengizik) and Bel-Kermek (Hernach) sent ultimatum to Byzantium, when it is rejected, Dengizik invades Thrace, but is defeated under command of Byzantians Anagast and Aspar. Dengizik dies in battle.

468
Bulgar Kutigurs fight Byzantine (468-469). Bysantine's Anagast procured Khan Dengizik's head after he was killed and sent it to Constantinople where it was displayed atop of a spear. Kutrigurs never forgot Utigur Hernach's refusal of help.

468
468 - 469 Danube war between Huns and Byzantium. Bel-Kermek (Hernach) after Dengizik death leads army. Byzantium beats off invasion with difficulty. Byzantium mercenary army consists of Slavs and Alans commanded by Aspar, whose father was Alan.

468
Vernadsky G.V.:"in some respect Danube war of 468 - 469 was a war of Alans and Ants against their former masters, Huns." After Byzantian victory Huns left Dacia and Bessarabia. These provinces opened for Slavic colonization.

469
Western Hunnish clans retreated. Utigurs to Azov-Taman SE of Sea of Azov. Kutrigurs to between Dniepr and Don Rivers, NW from Sea of Azov Utigurs. Sabirs in Daghestan SE of other two Hunnic hordes, between Daryal Gorge and Kuma River on Caspian Sea.

469
469 - 488 movement of Bel-Kermek army back to Meotian-Taman region. They call themselves descendents of Hernach and are known as Utigurs (Kulakovsky "Alans")

469
Remnants of Tengiz (Dengizik) horde follow Utigurs to Dniepr and settle between Dniepr and Meotian Sea. They were called Kutigurs.

470
Peace between Syanbinian Jujan and Tabgach-Northern Wey Empire

480
Promulgation of first Sinicization decree in Tabgach-Northern Wey Empire

481
Ioanes Antiochenus: First written agreement of Byzantium emperor Zeno (474-475,476-491) with Bulgars' Djurash Masgut (465-505), allying them in war against Ostrogoths Goths of Theodoric (493-526), son of Triarius [Must be 475]

485
Syanbinian Jujan Khan Üychen (?-485)died, his …??... Doulun (485-492) becomes Khan.

486
Bulgars fight again against Goths as allies of Byzantium

488
Bulgars settle in Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia after expelling Theodoric Ostrogoths (488).

488
Khazarian khalifa begins rule over Georgia and Abania in S. Caucasus

488
Bulgars fought again against Goths as allies of Gepids.

488
Bulgarians had been regarded as a brave and invincible in war people

488
Chersonesus ruler decided to restore walls and towers damaged by earthquake, scared of Kutugur's raids

492
Syanbinian Jujan Khan Doulun (485-492) killed, end of Syanbinian Jujan overlordship over steppes and Tele. Nagay (492-493) becomes Khan

492
Kutigur Bulgars invade Thrace, defeat Byzantine army and kill their leader Julian.

493
Syanbinian Jujan Khan Nagay (492-493) died, his son Futu (493)becomes Khan.

493
493-499 Altynoba's Djurash Masgut Kutigur Huns start raiding Thrace, possibly with Slavs. They took advantage of a civil war in Byzantium.

495
Publication of Sinicization decree in Tabgach-Northern Wey Empire prohibiting use of Tabgach language.

498
Altynoba's Djurash Masgut in winter 498-499 annihilate Byzantium Illyrium army and extends to left bank of Danube. Altynoba subordinates to Avar overlordship.

499
Toba conquerors assimilated and switched to Chinese language

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In Russian
Bulgars Dateline 500-599 AD Continued



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Re: Да бе да,кво ше кажеш за тези писания,а
    #354150 - 03.07.2004 02:34 [Re: Боила]

BULGARS
Bulgars 4000 BC-336 AD
Bulgars 337-499 AD
Bulgars 500-599 AD
Bulgars 600-799 AD
Bulgars 800-1099 AD
Bulgars 1100-1299 AD
Bulgars 1300-1922 AD


500-599 AD
DATELINE

Time
Events

500
Gaochan in Turfan oasis, under ethnically Chinese lord, under overlordship of Syanbinian Jujanes, breaks with their allies Syanbinian Jujanes.

500
Earliest settlement on site of city of Bolgary dates to about AD 500

502
Altynoba's Djurash Masgut Kutigur Huns Bulgars plundered all of Thrace

504
Buddhism proclamed a state religion in China.

504
Altynoba's Djurash Masgut Kutigur Huns raid Thrace, possibly with Slavs

505
Altynoba's Djurash Masgut (465-505) dies, Tatra (505-) becomes Bulgarian Baltazar subordinated to Avar overlordship.

505
Sabirs from Pannonia immigrate to North Caucasus and Itil valley

505
Sabirs created a powerful federation of akin tribes, "Kingdom of Huns". They were populous and had an army of 20,000 well equipped cavalrymen. They were masters of art of war and build siege machines unknown even to Persians and Byzantines.

508
Teles (Teleutes) Khan Mivotu in vassalage to Ephtalites. Helps Empire Wey 's 3K army defeated Syanbinian Jujanes at lake Puley, after being paid 60 pieces of silk by Empire Wey. Futu dies in struggles. Mivotu is rewarded with musical instruments.

508
Cheunu (508-520) becomes Syanbinian Jujan Khan.

513
Altynoba's Tatra Bolgarian raids against Byzantium become annual. Hunno-Bulgars aid in Vitalians Revolt (514 ).

513
Buddhism penetrates to Syanbinian Jujanes. Khan Cheunu converts to Buddhism. Religious divisions in ruling clan

516
Syanbinian Jujan Khan Cheunu attacks Tele's kingdom Gaogüy, captures Tele (Teleut) lord Mivota, Tele escape to Ephtalites.

516
Slavs raid Macedonia and Illiria

518
Cheunu sends an embassy to Empire Wey, received by emperor Syao-min-di, re-establishes vassalage to Wey.

518
Justin I repulsed Slav hordes beyond Danube

519
Syanbinian Jujan Khan Cheunu makes a treaty with Ephtalites, gives Eftalite lords his princesses as wives. Allies with Korea (Gao-Guyli) against Empire Wey, and together smash Manju tribe Dideugan.

519
Empire Wey recognized suzerainty of Turfan's Gaochan, and Syanbinian Jujanes continue to trade with them, receiving bread and cloth. Iron goods are provided to Syanbinian Jujans by their Türk (Türks-tuku) vassals in Altai.

520
Syanbinian Jujan Khan Cheunu (508-520) killed by his mother, installed her another son, Anahuan, replaced by Polomyn.

521
Teles rebel and defeat remaining Syanbinian Jujanes under Polomyn, and Polomyn moves to Empire Wey with remains of his Horde. Anakhuan escaped to Empire Wey in 520, so both branches of Syanbinian Jujan horde ended up in Empire Wey.

521
Polomyn's horde is resettled within Empire Wey by lake Kukunor, and Sinifa, brother of Anakhuan, is resettled beyond border, north of Dunkhuan.

525
Anahuan leads Empire Wey expedition against rebel fortress Bo-ye and defeats rebels. Receives rewards and absolution from Empire Wey.

525
Togon's Syanbinian prince Kualüy pronounces himself Khan.

527
Procopius Caesariensis: Hephthalites are people from Unn tribe, but they do not mix with them… they are not nomads like other Unn tribes, but live since ancient times in a fruitful country… Among all other Unns they are the only ones with white bodies and not repulsive faces

527
Bulgars, Slavs, and western Antae ravaged Illyricum and Thrace, perhaps the first historically certain attack by the Slavs, in force and in large numbers, upon the Empire
527
Procopius: Chosroes sent army of Huns into Roman Armenia, to create a diversion there, they fall into hands of Valerian and his Romans, and Huns had been badly beaten in battle, and most of them killed

530
Procopius gives first historical accounts about invasions of Slavic tribes across Danube. These invasions started during first half of 6th century during Roman emperors Justinian (527-565) to Heraklios (610-641)

530
Migrations of Slavs were frequently led by Türks, shown by archaeological finds (oldest pieces of Slavic pottery and metal art objects are borrowed from Türkic peoples), and by numerous Türkic loanwords concerning state organization and cultural life

530
Second army of Romans in Caucasus consists of Saracens (sary chechle - yellow haired, or Kipchaks) under Arethas, ruler of Saracens

531
Gao-Khuan revolted, defeated Tobases and split Empire Wey into East Wey and West Wey, both controlled by Chinese military leaders under a nominal Syanbian Emperors.

531
With split of Empire Wey Syanbinian Togon became free.

531
Khazarian khalifa loses rule over Georgia and Abania in S. Caucasus to Persian Sasanid Chosroes I (531-578)

531
Procopius Caesariensis: "Huns and Ants, Sklavens already crossed Danube many times and caused unrecoverable damage to Romans". Attack of Altynoba's Tatra Huns and Slavs on Byzantium. After next raid Justinian appoints Ant (Slav) Khvalibud a Roman commander on Danube

534
Anahuan with his horde attacks Tele's kingdom Gaogüy, defeats it. Tele's lord Ifu killed by his brother Üegüy, who continues resistance, is defeated, killed by Ifu's son Bidi.

537
Goths siege of Rome. To help Belisarius came army of Altynoba's Tatra Bulgars, Sklavens and Antes. Byzantines drive Goths from Rome with help of Bulgar troops (537-538).

538
Slavic soldiers are mentioned in Roman army

539
Altynoba's Tatra Bulgar Huns raid to Thrace. Byzantium runs 3 wars

540
Western Antae and Slavs fight, and in battle Antae were defeated by their fellow Slavs. Justinian settle Antae, Eastern Slavic people, led by a Sarmatian ruling clan, in region of Turris, on left bank of lower Danube, as foederati employed against Bulgars
540
Tele's kingdom Gaogüy under Bidi is defeated and Gaogüy stops existing.

540
Split of Empire Wey makes Syanbinian Jujan Khan Anakhuan a gegemon for both halves of Empire Wey.

540
Altynoba's Tatra Kutigur Bulgars take and plunder not only rural areas, but take forts (539-540). In Illyrium alone, in 540, Kutigur Bulgars seized 32 forts.

540
Syanbinian Khan Kualüy sends embassy to Gao-Khuan in Syanbinian Eastern Wey, becoming an enemy of Syanbinian Western Wey.

540
Togon occupied considerable territory, had cities (protected settlements), had organized government, maybe copied from Tobases, had extensive cattle growing economy, low in culture, and under strong dominance of Khans.

540
Türkic autonomy is recognized by Western Wey

540
Byzantine use of treacherous politics cause Utiguri and Kutriguri to unite against them

545
Altynoba's Tatra (505-545) dies, Boyan Chelbir (545-590) becomes Baltavar subordinated to Avar overlordship

545
Syanbinian Jujan lord Anakhuan, allied with Syanbinian Eastern Wey, together with Eastern Wey's emperor Gao Khuan, and Togon's king Kualüy, attack Syanbinian Western Wey, but do not defeat Syanbinian Western Wey decisively.

545
Emperor of Syanbinian Western Wey Ven-di sends ambassador An Nopanto to Türk lord Bumyn. Bumyn displays disloyalty to their suzerain Syanbinian Jujanes and sends a reciprocating embassy to Syanbinian Western Wey capital Chanan.

545
Türks under Khan Bumyn become allies of Syanbinian Western Wey and its successor Bey Chjou.

546
Bey Chjou dynasty was not of Chinese, but of Syanbinian roots and relied on assimilated Syanbinian elite.

546
Ephtalite embassy came to W. Wey

550
West Tele tribes revolt against Syanbinian Jujan dominance, and attack from western Djungaria toward Khalka in Syanbinian Jujan heartland.

550
West Tele tribes are intercepted on the march by Türkic army coming from valleys of Gobi Altai in lined formations, covered by armored plates, on well fed war horses. West Tele army, surprised by unintended enemy, pledged submission to Türkic Lord Bumyn.

550
Bumyn, by accepting West Tele tribes vassalage displays another unloyalty to Syanbinian Jujanian suzerainty.

550
Descendant of Gao-Khuan, Gao Yan, establishes his own dynasty in Syanbinian Eastern Wey named Bey-Tsi.

550
Mid. 4-th century Period of king Sarosius' government in Alania. Establishment of tight contacts between Alania and Byzantine

551
Türkic Khan Bumyn (1) provokes Syanbinian Jujanes to a war by asking for a Syanbinian Jujan princess as a wife. Anakhuan refuses, calling him slave-smelter daring for such an offer.

551
Boyan Chelbir Bulgars and Slavs led by Khagan Zabergan (558-582) cross Danube, loot Thrace and Macedonia, and attack Constantinople. Military losses, Byzantine bribes, and attack of Bulgar homeland by Avars causes Khagan Zabergan to withdraw his forces.

551
Boyan Chelbir Kutriguri Bulgars break through Antian border guard into Byzantine

551
Zachariah Ritor: Bulgars and Alans are mentioned once as settled populations with towns, and once as nomads. Bulgarians towns were in territory immediately next to Caspian gates, while nomads - in steppes north of Caucasus.

551
Zachariah Ritor: Thirteen peoples Avnagur (Onogur), Avgar, Sabir, Burgar, Alan, Kurtargar, Avar, Hasar, Dirmar, Sirurgur, Bagrasir, Kulas, Abdel and Hephtalit live in tents, earn their living on meat of livestock and fish, of wild animals and by their weapons."

551
Onogurs had towns - in earlier times they had built town of Bakat.

551
Boyan Chelbir Kutrigurs raid Thrace. Byzantium, with a skillful diplomacy, incite Uturgurs against Kutrigurs, and Uturgurs attack Kutugurs

552
Türkic Khan Bumyn executes Syanbinian Jujan's ambassador, and in winter of 552 attacks Syanbinian Jujanes and defeats them.

552
Bumyn Il Khan (1) dies in 552, his son Kolo Isigi (3) becomes Khan (552-552) under name of Kara Issyk Khan (3) , his uncle Istemi (2) remains Istemi-Yabguu.

552
Syanbinian Jujanes, defeated by Türks, elect Anakhuan's uncle Dynshuttsy Khan and continue fight. In a battle near mountain Lyanshan they are defeated by Kara Issyk Khan.

552
Anakhuan commits suicide, his son Yanlochen flees to Syanbinian Eastern Wey under dynasty of Bey-Tsi. Bumyn takes title of Il Khan, but dies in same 552

552
Kipchaks were members of Türkic Kaganate, Boma were not members of Türkic Kaganate

552
Kipchaks lived in Altai, valley of Chjelyan = Djilan = Snake, so Snake mountain and city Zmeinogorsk. Probably same as Boma of Dinlin Belonged to Türkic Kaganate, lived in Alashan, mixed with Kangals, became Koman/Kuman/Cuman Russ. Polovets)

552
Kara Issyk Khan (3) dies in 552, his younger brother Kushu (4) becomes Khan as Mugan Khan (553-572).

552
Huns and Syanbinians conquered from China western part of Shansy province. Local people were submitted to Hunnish Khan Mugan, who controlled Chesi area west of Ordos, between bends of Chuanche and Nanshan.

552
GOKTÜRK KHAGANATE
552 - 743 A.D
Founder - Bumin Khan (Tumen)
Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)

552
End of WHITE HUN (EPHTALITE) EMPIRE
420 - 552 A.D
Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur)
Area - Half of Northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan, Eastern Turkestan but also significant parts of Central Asia (Tokharistan, Chaganian, Samarkand, Bukhara, Kesh, Ferghana, Chach (Total Area - 3,500,000 Km2)

552
Sabirs switch from Iran to Byzantium and conquer Agvania. Byzantium conquer Italy

552
2 Nestorian monks smuggle silkwarm eggs from China to Byzantium, and by early 7-th c silk industry is well established in Asia Minor

553
Syanbinian Jujanes are defeated by new Goktürkic Khan Mugan Khan. They flee to Syanbinian Eastern Wey under dynasty of Bey-Tsi, who accepted them and repulsed Goktürkish pursuit.

553
553-568 Goktürks and Sassanids ally to destroy Hephthalite Empire (Avars?).

553
Ephtalite embassy to W.Wey

553
Kidanes defeated and subordinated by Emperor Ven-di of Eastern Wey under dynasty of Bey-Tsi. Rest of Kidanes fled to Kogurio (Korea) or subordinated to Goktürks, who reached Yellow Sea.

554
Syanbinian Jujanes do not have their herds, and are unable to work. They terrorize and rob population, and Syanbinian Eastern Wey Bey-Tsi sends an army against Syanbinian Jujanes.

554
Thirty Tatar tribes (Chinese Shi Wey), Tatabs (Khi by Chinese), and Kidanes are east of emerging Goktürk Khaganate. All three people were close in culture and life, spoke dialects of Mongolian language, but had hostile relations.

554
Tatabs lived on west slopes of Khingan and were allied with Eastern Wey under dynasty of Bey-Tsi.

554
Destruction of Syanbinian Jujanes weakened Syanbinian Eastern Wey Bey-Tsi. At same time, Syanbinian Western Wey Bey-Chjou was growing and more powerful.

554
Persians defeat Sabirs in Agvania.

554
Jujans started looting in Tsi, but are repelled by Chinese. 555 Jujans flee from Bey-Tsi to W Wey, given to Goktürks and decimated. Lyan attacks Bey-Tsi

555
Syanbinian Jujanes are expelled from Syanbinian Eastern Wey by Bey-Tsi army to steppes. Syanbinian Jujanes are beaten by Goktürks and Kidanes.

555
Goktürks defeat Avars (Abars). First encounter of Goktürks with Ephtalites.

556
Syanbinian Jujanes flee to Syanbinian Western Wey, which surrenders 3K army to Goktürk's ambassador, who orders decapitation of all except children and servants. End of Syanbinian Jujan dominance of steppes.

557
Avar's ambassador Kandikh to Byzantium Justinian demands lands and tribute.

557
Emperor Justinian (527-565) began a huge fortification program in Balkans, in an attempt to slow, if not stop, invasions across Danube

557
Assimilated Syanbinian, Üyvyn Tay, establishes his own dynasty in Chanan of Syanbinian Western Wey.

557
557-561 Türks and Sasanians ally to destroy Hepthalite state in Central Asia, which had ruled, among other places, Sogdiana.

558
Bulgars living along lower Dniepr and Don are Kuturgur Huns. Bulgars living along Kuban are Uturgur Huns. Kuturgurs raid Byzantium's Thracia, Byzantium incites Uturgurs to fight with Kuturgurs.

558
Avars then confederated Kuturgurs and proceeded to attack Byzantium. Perso-Avar union lasted to 628 and almost destroyed Byzantium.

558
Avars devastate Thessalia, Hellas, Epirus, Vetus, and Attica, invad Peloponnese and kill "noble and Hellenic race". Avars ruled over Peloponnese for 218 years

558
Kutugurs under Zabergan raid Byzantine on Balkans and come to walls of Constantinople.

558
Avars smash Bulgars/Uturgurs, loyal allies of Byzantine, and Zals (?) living along lower Don. Kutugurs supported Avars.

558
Istemi Yabgu stops at Itil (Itil), allowing Vars and Huni, both from North of Aral Sea, to escape to west and become known as Avars. Istemi: When I finish with Ephtalites, I will go after Avars, they can't escape

558
Vars (Ugrian tribe, related to Hungarian ancestors Ogors/Ugrs which lived between Itil and Yaik (Ural) rivers, and to Hungarians living in Bashkiria up to 13 c.) and Huni (Khionites = Sarmato-Alanians), both from North of Aral Sea, become known as Avars.

558
Avars first crushed Türkic Sabirs, allies of Byzantine, who lived on Kuma river and in Dagestan. Avars then crushed Uturgurs, a Bulgarian tribe and also allies of Byzantine, living between Itil and Don, then crushed Zals and Ants on both sides of Don.

558
Avars negotiate with Persia and Byzantium to find an ally. Avars conclude agreements with both Persia and Byzantium. Avars proceed to play in their own interests.

558
Invading Avars attack Hunno-Bulgars. Utiguri, Kutriguri, and Sabiri are conquered (559-560)

558
Goktürks conquered Itil and Yaik areas. Remains of Huni, Var, and Obr tribes went west to Danube, creating united Avar people. Their first task was to escape from Goktürk enemy. They managed it only because Ephtalites in C Asia distracted Istemi Yabgu

558
Türkic coins with Türkic inscriptions 'Khagan' and 'Yabgu' are minted in Soghd, Chach and Ferghana. Terminated by Arab conquest of Mawaranahr and consequent introduction of new kinds of coins, in Semirech’e issue of Türkic coins continues into 9th to 10th centuries

558
Hephthalites (Avars) move west to Black Sea steppe to form Avar Khanate

558
Slavic warriors may have taken part in a Bulgar invasion to Greece

558
Avar Khaganate extended from Itil to mouth of Danube. Bolgars are split, with Kuturgur Huns (also listed are Onogundurs (10 Oghur Confederation), Hunnogurs, Sabirs belonging to Avar Khaganate, and Utugur Huns (30 Oghur) and Khazars loyal to W. Khaganate

558
AVAR EMPIRE in Europe
558-805 AD
Founder - Khan Bayan
Area - Pannonia, Balkans, Bessarabia, N. Pontic steppes to Tanais and Itil (Total Area - 2,500,000 Km2)
Seat of Avar kaghan and his warlords east of Danube in Pannonia, known as Rhing

558
Discovered in Mongolia late in 20c inscription Var-guni (Bar-guni) mention Europian Avars. Majority of Avar's time skeletons from Hungary are Mongoloids, Bayan was probably Mongolian word, evidence that Avars were Mongol Jujuns

558
Avarian embassy to Byzantium. Avars defeat Sabirs and Ants.

558
Avars led by Khan Bayan invaded N Caucasus and faced Byzantium's allies. In Byzantian sources first time they are mentioned

558
Avars show up on Danube.In Jan-Feb embassy of Kagan Bayan negociates in Constantinopole. Justinian hires them to guard agains "barbarians", the same Türkic nomadic hordes as Avars, who continued to erupt from N China.

559
Utugurs under Sandilch attack returning Kutugurs, and start a war. War weakens both peoples.

559
Kutugur Bulgars under Zabergan, with Avars, made a treaty with Sklavins(?), cross Danube on ice, raid Byzantine, in three directions. Via Macedonia to Ellada to Thermopile, to Thracian Chersones, under Zabergan through a break in Long Wall to Constantinop

559
Velizarius led defense and repulsed Kutugurs. Kutugurs remained in Thracia until paid off and received "gifts" on same conditions as Utugurs. Kutugurs leave Thracia.

559
After unsuccessful storm of Constantinopol Bulgars and Slavs were trapped. Byzantians cut their retreat. Justinian magnificiently spared them. Velizarius pushed them behind Long Wall. Zabergan retreated because Avars were coming fron east.

560
Avar Khaganate extended from Itil to mouth of Danube. Bulgars are split, with Kuturgur Huns (also listed are Onogundurs (10 Ogur Confederation), Hunnogurs, Sabirs belonging to Avar Khaganate, and Utugur Huns (30 Ogur) and Khazars loyal to W. Khaganate

560
Avars invaded land of Utigurs on east shore of Meotida. Utigurs recognized Avarian rule. Avars invaded Kutigurs. Kutigurs defeated and became Avarian vassals too. Bayan proclames himself Kagan.

560
Goktürkic ambassadors to Iran killed by Ephtalites on the road

561
Embassy from Kucha to Bay-Chjou

561
Avars captured Bessarabia, execute local ruler Mesamer

561
Sosroi Nushirvan crushes Sibirs

562
Last incursion by Kutigur Bulgars into Byzantium, stopped by Byzantium's instigating internecine wars between two most powerful branches, Kutigur (Kutrigur) and Utigur.

562
Second Avarian embassy to Byzantium

562
Avars came to Dobrudja and settle there

562
Persians defeat Ephtalites

563
Western Wey dynasty Bey-Chjou was of Syanbinian descent, and relying on support of Syanbinian elite transformed into large landlords. They assimilated and used Chinese language.

563
Goktürkic emissary in Constantinopole

563
Goktürkic armies, supported by Khosrov, attack Balkh, invade Ephtalite lands south of Amudarya. Per 'Shah-Name', decisive battle near Bukhara. Ephtalite army of King Gatifar is crushed

564
Army service was made compulsory for simple people of Empire Wey, and two armies were organized. Army of nobles - fubin - was balanced by army of people. Fubin came from military organization of Syanbinian tribe Toba, who conquered Northern China in 4 c.

564
Service in army was mandatory for Syanbinian clansmen. In reward they received land parcels, and were released from any other obligations. Service was inherited, and with time soldiers become a privileged caste.

564
Initially army consisted exclusively of Syanbinians, but later it was supplemented by rich Chinese from Shansi and Shensi who accepted foreign dynasty after it adopted Chinese culture and language.

565
Avars under Khan Bayan (c. 565-602) subjugate Hunnugur and Sabir, and other Hunnic hordes, assimilating them under Avar Khaganate.

565
After defeat of their forces by Avars, Khazars took lead in Sabir-Khazar federation. Part of Sabirs move north, to Middle Itil region, among settled there Bulgarian tribes. Their main city Suvar is a great center of Itil Bulgaria.

565
Pannonia came under pressure from Avars, Lombardian new king, Alboin, found support from Constantinople less then he had hoped for.

565
Langobards destroys Gepidian Reign

565
Goktürkic Khagan Mugan Khagan and Istemi Yabgu defeat Ephtilites at Neseph. Considered fall year of Ephtilite state. Ephtilites traces lost in history

565
Hephthalite territory divided between Iran and Goktürk Khaganate. Border between them ran west of Balkh and east of Murgab

566
Between 566 and 571 Istemi Yabgu subjugated peoples Bandjar, Balandjar (Belendjer) and Khazar. Barandjar (Balandjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bulgars. Khazar influence increased as Khazars became Goktürks' closest allies and assistants.

567
Goktürks capture Bosphorus

567
Gepidic kingdom defeated by Avars

567
Avars ally with Longobards

567
Goktürk embassy to Sasanids, with a request for Silk Route transit trade through their territories is rejected

568
Sirs live in towns and have ports in Djurdjan, across Amu-Darya

568
Avars occupy Panonia

568
Lombardian King Alboin led a host of Lombards, Gepids, Sarmatians and other peoples (including Hunnic Bulgars, per Paul the Deacon) from Pannonia to Italy. Others, amongst them Bavarians, Saxons and Taifali, joined invasion en route

568
As Lombardian King Alboin advanced, vacuum left behind them was filled by Avars, Bulgars and Slavs

568
Goktürk embassy to Constantinople led by a Soghdian Maniakh, proposing to ally against Sasanians

569
Goktürks invade and conquer Sirs.

569
Zemarkh embassy to Goktürks, with five further embassies exchanged by 576

569
Goktürk war agains Sasanians; penetration of Kabul and Gandhara regions

570
Kutugurs, as all people on Itil ruled by Goktürks, are encouraged by rise of Avars as alternative to Goktürk suzerainty.

570
Syanbinian Jujan horde keeps robbing neighbors. Language = Syanbinian Consider themselves to be ethnically Tobases.

570
Khazars are ruled by Western Goktürk Khaganate (570-659)

570
Goktürk rulers receive 100,000 pieces of silk tribute a year from China. Goktürks are the first Eurasian steppe empire to extend from Roman/Byzantine world in west, Iranian/Sasanian in south and Chinese in East

572
572-591 Goktürks and Byzantines ally against Sassanians

572
Goktürks subjugate Utiguri until about 581.

572
Western Goktürk Khaganate's "Ulus" on lower Itil and Yaik

572
Mugan Khan (4) dies in 572, his younger brother Tobo (5) becomes Khan (572-581)

572
Peace between Bey-Tsi and Goktürks

574
Embassy from Khotan to Bey-Chjou

575
Istemi Yabgu (2) dies, his son Dyangu (Tardu) Kara ChurinTürk (7) becomes Tardu Yabgu (575-603).

575
Uturgurs are allied with W. Goktürk Khaganate.

575
Alliance between Goktürks and Uturgurs

576
Tardu Yabgu sends Bokhan to attack Byzantine in Crimea and Panticapeum (Kerch) as a leader of Utigur Huns under chief Anagai (576-590).

576
Utugurs under Khan Anagai, as auxiliaries of Goktürks, take Bospor. Utugurs remain on N. Caucasus from Dagestan to Derbent, under W. Goktürk Khaganate suzerainty

576
Goktürks establish Khazar Khanate.

576
Bulgars of lower Itil and Kuban are loyal to Goktürkish dynasty Ashina

576
Goktürks are on both sides of Kerch straight. Goktürkic army leader (Tma Tarkhan) on Taman peninsula, giving name to city Tmutarkhan

577
Goktürks invade Crimea

578
Slavs invade Ellada

578
Bysantium allies with Avars. Avars defeat Slavs, killing their Prince Davrit

578
Regions along lower Danube were in 6th and 7th centuries inhabited by Sclavinae, Antes, and Huns (probably Bulgarians). Moldavia and northeastern Muntenia were populated by Slavic tribe of Antes.

579
Avarian ultimatum by Kagan Bayan to secede city Sirmiy. Tiberius refuses. Avars capture Sirmiy after a two tear siege

580
Presence in Istria of hostile to Bysantium Slavs and Avars. Avars were partly responsible for southward migration of Serbs and Croats

580
Slavic chieftain sacked Corinth

580
Avars conquered and plundered cities and strongholds in Hellas

580
Goktürks invade Lasica

580
Peace of Bay-djou with Kaganate

581
Tobo (5) dies, Shetu (9) becomes Khagan (581-587).

581
Tardu Yabgu sends Bokhan to attack Cheronesus as a leader of Utigur Huns under chief Anagai.

581
Goktürks at Chersonessus walls

581
581-584 Devastating raid of Slavs through Thrace, Macedonia and Ellada. Settlement of Slavs in Thrace

581
Khans Ashina are Türks and are" wolves". Syanbian quean describes her husband Shabolio as Wolf by his personality.

581
Chinese revolt against Syanbinian dynasty. New dynasty received name Suy. Sinadized Syanbinian elite survived.

582
Avar Khagan Bayan attacks Byzantium in Thrace.

582
Kuturgur Hun Bulgars settle in Bessarabia and Wallachia, from which they will move to Moesia under pressure from Magyars, and make it Bulgaria.

582
Hunnic Khan Zabergan (558?-582) dies, Gostun becomes Hunnic Khan ruling over Kutigurs.

582
Shetu Kagan appoints Gostun Kutigurian Khan

582
Goktürkic Khaganate officially breaks up into Western and Eastern Khaganates. Khwarezm (lower part of Amu Darya R., S. of Aral Sea) and Sugd/Sogdiana (Zerafshan and Kashka Darya R., including area around Samarkand) likely autonomous kingdoms to become independent in next century with Tang defeat of Goktürks

582
582 - 602 Rule of Byzantine Emperor Maurice. First mention of Khazars in Byzantine annals, along with Bulgars and Barsils. Noted their coming from Bersilia, supposedly in Caspian steppe

582
Avar Khagan Bayan appointed Gostun as Kutriguri Khan (582-584 AD) (House Ermi) after Khan Zabergan's death in an invasion of Byzantium in northern Illyricum. Avars and Hunno-Bulgars attacked and seized Fortress of Sirmium on lower Sava River. Byzantium hastily concluded peace treaty with Avars, promising to give them an annual tribute of 80,000 gold coins

583
Avarian attack on Byzantium

584
Hunnic Khan Gostun (582-584) dies, Orchona (584-594) becomes regent of his nephew Kubrat

584
New Emperor recognizes queen Khan's wife as daughter, thus Shetu as son, thus recognizing previous traditions of trading with Goktürks as a form of paying tribute, and confirming privileges of Syanbinian elite. Shetu acknowledges vassalage to empire.

584
New Slav attack on Constantinople. Defeat and retreat

586
Avars and Slavs besieged Thessalonica

587
Shetu (9) dies, Moho (14) becomes Khagan, followed by Tulan (Ün-Ulug) (16) (587-599). Tulan has anti-khan Tuli (Jangar) (18) (600-609) supported by empire.

587
Byzantium peace with Avars

588
Shetu Khan (19) dies, Ün Ulug (Tulan) (Dulan) (16) (587-599) becomes Khan

588
China open markets for trade with Türks

588
582? Separation of Goktürkic Empire into East (Mongolia) and West (Turkestan) parts

589
W. Goktürk Khaganate campaign against Persia in Caucasus, with Khazars but without Bulgars. Both Khazars and Bulgars are confederated (jointed voluntarily, not as conquered) into W. Goktürk Khaganate.

589
W. Goktürk Khaganate's Khazars supply military contingents and participate in division of captured wealth. Bulgars man western border with Avars and don't benefit from captured wealth.

589
Invasion of Khazars, Greeks and Georgians to Agvania is repelled by Persians

590
Under dynasty Suy position of fubin worsened. Soldiers were moved from "military" lists to "Civil household lists", thus exemption from taxes ended. This was aimed against Syanbinian privileges left from Syanbinian overlordship.

594
Hunnic Regent Orchona (584-594) dies, Kubrat accends to Khanship (594-642).

594
Judging from some eparchial lists from end of 7-th or beginning of 8-th century, in 7-th century there was an Onogurian episcopate in Gothic eparchy. This attests early spread of Christianity among Onogurs

594
Theophanes Confessor and Constantinus Porphyrogeneus explicitly state that Bulgarians, settled on Balkans, had been called earlier Unogundurs

594
Byzantine patriarch Nicephorus calls ruler of Great Bulgaria khan Kubrat "ruler of Unogundurs"

594
Heir of throne, Tulan Khagan's cousin, Tuli (Jangar), with a title of Toleses' Khan = Tuli Khan, was Khan of north-east territory. Tuli Khan had vassals ShiWey (Tatars), Kidanes, Khi (Tatabs).

598
Kara Churin embassy to Constantinipole

599
Tulan (Ün-Üylüy) (16) is killed, Kara Churin Türk (7) becomes Khan with title Boke Khan (599-604)

599
Chinese fight successfully in Ordos

600
Tulan (Ün-Üylüy) (16) dies, Jangar (Tuli) (18) (600-609) assumes control of all Eastern Goktürk Khaganate, in vassalage of Chinese empire.

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Bulgars Dateline 500-599 AD Continued



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Re: Да бе да,кво ше кажеш за тези писания,а
    #354151 - 03.07.2004 02:40 [Re: Боила]

BULGARS
Bulgars 4000 BC-336 AD
Bulgars 337-499 AD
Bulgars 500-599 AD
Bulgars 600-799 AD
Bulgars 800-1099 AD
Bulgars 1100-1299 AD
Bulgars 1300-1922 AD


600-799 AD
DATELINE

Time
Events

601
Byzantians defeat Avars

601
Th. Simokattes: Priskos, Byzantine general, defeated Avars in Banat and collected 9.000 prisoners, 3000 Avars, 800 Slavs, 3200 Gepidae, and 2.000 “barbarians”

602
Byzantium general Priscus defeats Avars. Bayan (c. 565-602) dies. Next Khan rules (602-630).

602
HAZAR KHAGANATE
602-1016 A.D
Founder - no historical data for founder, its greatest ruler was Hakan Yusuf.
Area - Hazars separated from Goktürks and formed a state from Caucasian Mntns to Danube and N. Pontic area

603
Tardu Khan (7) dies in 603, his grandson Buri-Shad (13/14/15) becomes Khan of partitioned Western Goktürk Khaganate, controlling westernmost part. Chulo (10) controls eastern part.

603
Kushans rebel against Iran with help from Goktürks. Tocharistan separates from Iran

604
Rebellious Tele in basin of Selenga area pacified, but Djungaria and basin of Tarim did not return to Eastern Goktürk Khaganate.

604
New dynasty treat carefully descendants of Tobases (Syanbinians). Assimilated Syanbinians live along Great Wall from Khebey to Chanan. There were many large landowners and professional military pushed from power by Chinese landowners who took power.

604
Kara Churin Türk Boke Khan (7) dies, Goktürk Kaganate split into West and East. Tuli (Jangar) (18) becomes Khan of Eastern Goktürk Kaganate, Taman (28) becomes Khan of Western Goktürk Khaganate (604-610).

604
Nominally Djungaria and basin of Tarim entered Western Goktürk Khaganate. However Kibi on northern slopes of East Tian-Shan and Seyanto on S. Slopes of Altain-Nuru crest fought western Goktürks for 2 years (605-606) and gained freedom.

605
Kidanes revolt against Goktürk suppression

606
New state was created in Djungaria, under Kibi leadership, with a vast territory and including settled population necessary for nomadic state, in oasises Karashar, Turfan and Khami. Kibi's Prince Gelen took title Mokhe-Khan.

606
Leader of Seyantos Ishibo subordinated to Gelen but retained control over his tribe. State was likely a tribal union.

607
Order about outlawing a free trade of Chinese with Goktürks

608
Wars between Tele and Goktürks of Western Khaganate end.

608
Troops of Empire Suy attack Togon and destroy it.

608
Jangar Khan (Tuli) (18) (-608) died, his son, Shad Dugi, becomes Khan of East Goktürk Khaganate in vassalage of Empire Tan, under name Shibir (Shipi) Khan (25) (609-620).

609
Troops of Empire Suy attack Tele and Western Goktürk Khaganate

610
610-620 Avar Slavs raided Thessalia, Hellas, Aegean Islands, Achaia, and Epirus

610
Marquart: Leader of Unugurs (Unogundurs) Organa, founder of Bulgarian Dynasty Dulo, uncle of Kubrat Dulo, related to Ashina by female line, of most-western ulus, is baptized in Constantinople. Kubrat is not baptized.

610
Future Sibir-Khan (14), Mokhodu, of most western ulus is baptized in Constantinople. This starts his fight with Buri Shad (34) (610-618) and Tardu Yabgu (Tun-djabgu) (23) (618-630). Kubrat is not baptized.

610
Taman Yabgu (28) dies, Buri Shad Yabgu (34) becomes Khan of Western Goktürk Khaganate (610-618). Chulo (26) = anti-Khan (610-611).

615
Tobases living along northern border of Western Wey stopped being Tobases long ago, but did not become Chinese yet. They are equally distanced from steppes and China, and equally close to both. Goktürks called them Tabgach.

615
In time of revolt Tabgaches participated because of warlike ancestry, but acted aimlessly, because lost organization and unity.

617
617(?) A defeat from Byzantines resulted in deterioration of situation for Avar’s Khakan. Alburi killed at court of Avar’s Khakan.

617
Shi Wey, along with Kidan, Togon and Gaochan submitted to Shibir Khan Khagan (25).

618
Buri Shad Yabgu (34) dies, Tung Yabgu (23) becomes Khan of Western Goktürk Khaganate (618-630).

618
Bu-Yurgan refused to be elected Baltavar, saying, that he will be a bolyar, i.e. a cleric. On his advice, Kara Bulgars elected Alburi’s senior son Kurbat a Baltavar

619
Kubrat allies with Byzantium against Avars.

619
Both Tele leaders, Kibi's Mokhe-Khan and Seyanto's Inan, subordinate to Tung Yabguu Khan = Yabgu of Shenuy. Djungaria returned to Western Goktürk Khaganate.

619
Sirs are controlled by Tung Yabgu Khan directly.

619
Baptism of "Hunnish Khan" in Constantinopole. Avars reach Constantinopole.

619
China breakes union with Goktürks. Capture of Khesi. Lyan Shi-du and Lyu U-Chjou invade N China with Goktürkic support

620
Shambat, younger brother of Baltavar Kubrat, on Kubrat order, builds in aul Askal on mountains Kuyantau city-fortress named Bashtu, present Kiev. Other names Askal, Kuk-Kuyan, Shambat, Kyi.

620
Shibir Khagan (25) (609-620) dies, Kat Il Khan (27) becomes Khan of Eastern Goktürk Khaganate, free from vassalage of empire (620-630).

620
In 200 years descendants of Syanbinians assimilated in Tibet. Tsenpo was an inherited position, he received income from lands, taxes, tributes, confiscations and executions. But he could be dismissed at any time because he did not have support or real pow

620
Tibet army was under a special advisor. Tsenpo Nimry (570-620). In following history there is no Syanbinian role,

620
Avarian retreat from Constantinople

622
The Hijra. Start of Islam as a world event

622
Union of Lu Shey-da with Goktürks

623
Several successfull uprisings of Slavic tribes against Avars are recorded, for example revolt of Vends in 623.

623
Avars reigned over a vast territory between Alps, Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

623
Shambat starts war against Avars, with Ulchis (Slavs) and Ugrs. Shambat captures Pannonia and calls his ulus Duloba (623-658). Baltavar Kubrat calls him Kyi (Separated).

623
Slavs attacked Crete

623
Byzantine authors recorded ethnic composition of Avar Empire as Avars, Gepids, and Slavs

623
Birth of Samo state, first political formation of Slavs, first mentioned in writing in 623

625
Exchange of embassies between Byzantium and Western Goktürkic Khaganate

626
(Onogur?) Bulgars live in Trans-Caucasus on right bank of Kuban' to Don Different fr and rival to Khazars

626
Avars controlled all Kuturgur Hun lands Uturgur (Onogur?) Bulgars did not participate in Khazars' war raids into Caucasus Uturgur (Onogur?) Bulgars guarded western border of Western Kaganate Uturgur (Onogur?) Bulgars are allied with Tele (Dulu).

626
W. Goktürk Khaganate campaign against Sasanian Persia in Caucasus, with Khazars but without Bulgars

626
Khazars and (Onogur?) Bulgars confederated (voluntarily, not conquered) into W. Goktürk Khaganate. Khazars supply military contingents and participate in division of captured wealth. Bulgars man western border with Avars and don't benefit from captured we

626
Kubrat proclaims independence from W. Goktürk Khaganate and assumes title of Khagan.

626
While Heraclius with W, Goktürk Khaganates fights Persians in Caucasus, Persians with Avars attack Constantinople. Avars retreat with heavy losses and in disgrace. Kubrat suggests sucking Avar Khagan and replacing him. End of Avar-Persian union.

626
Khazars ally with Byzantine under Emperor Heraclius (626-630)

626
Li Shi-min coup. Peace with Goktürks at river Vey

626
Greeks and Goktürks seige Tbilisi

626
Avars suffered a crushing defeat at Constantinople in 626

627
Seyanto tribe and Djungaria left Western Goktürk Khaganate and joined Eastern Goktürk Khaganate Kat Il Khan

627
Chinese embassy to Tun-Yabgu Khan stopped by Kat Il Khan

627
Seyanto and Uygurs, both Tele tribes, help each other in Goktürk Khaganate. Seyanto's Inan and Uygur's Pusa support each other.

627
Series of revolts against Avars start among subjugated tribes. Uprising of western Slavs, led by Samo, a Frankish merchant, resulted in founding of a Slavic state on territory of present-day Czech Republic and Slovakia.

627
Avars and Perians beseige Contantinopole

628
Khazars capture Tbilisi

628
Seyanto tribe with 70K yurts gains independence.

629
Chinese take fortress May in Ordos. Counterattack by Goktürks on all fronts. Srontsangambo enthroned in Tibet

630
Bulgars/Barsils are incorporated into elite of W. Goktürk Khaganate horde.

630
Great Bulgaria north of Black Sea under Kubrat (630-660)

630
End of rule of Khazars by Goktürk W Khaganate

630
Seyanto pursue Goktürk Chebi Khan who finds refuge in Altai valley with 30K army.

630
Avars treat Bulgars/Barsils badly as conquered people. Western Bulgars/Kuturgurs move to Bavaria, and are annihilated by Frankish king Dagober. Eastern Bulgars/Kuturgurs joint with Bulgars/Uturgur

630
Avar Khagan (602-630) dies. Next Khan rules (630-?).

630
Sibir-Khan (14) recognized independence of Bulgaria under Kubrat of Dulo dynasty, his nephew of feminine line.

630
Karluks rebel, Tung Yabgu (23) dies, W. Goktürk Khaganate split, SW and NE. SW run by Nushibis, under Irbis Bolun Yabgu (31) (631-631), installed by Nishu Khan Shad (32), son of Baga Shad (24). NE run by Tele (Dulu), under Sibir Khan Yabgu (14) (630-631).

630
Chinese Tang defeat Eastern Goktürkic and occupy Eastern Goktürkic Khanate (Mongolia). Kat Il Khan (27) taken prisoner by Tang army, Eastern Goktürk Khaganate is ruled by Tang Empire for 50 years (630-682)

630
630-640 Chinese subdue Tarim Basin

630
Türks of Ordos become known as Gok Türks (Blue Türks), different from their northern neighbors - Tele

630
80 K Chinese living with Goktürks are captured

630
Tardu Tong Yabgu of Western Goktürk Khaganate (619-630), per Chinese chronicle Tanshu, subjugated Toleses between rivers Orkhon and Tola, and Lake Aral, Iranians, advanced to Khandagar in south. His army has hundreds of thousands of good bow-shooters.

630
W. Goktürks invade Armenia and defeat Persians. W. Goktürks clear S Caucasus

630
Xuanzang visits court of W. Türk kaghan Tung Yabghu near Lake Issyk-Kul

631
Seyanto tribe keeps independence.

631
Seyanto under China = 70K wagons

631
Uygur leader Tumidu, heir of Pusa, defeated Seyantos and seized their ranges. Emperor Taitszun sent an embassy to Seyanto leader Inan and recognized him as Khan, as a counterweight to Uygurs. Uygurs subordinated and recognized new Khan.

631
Seyanto state organized like Türk's. Khan's sons are Shads, leading Tolos (North) and Tardush (South). Army numbered 200K lances, smaller than was 1,000K of Gokürks' Shibir Khan.

631
Seyanto state successfully controlled all Türkic leaders except for Ordos Türks under Chinese protection. Some Ordos Türks move north into Seyanto state.

631
Irbis Bolun Yabgu (31) replaced by Nishu Khan Shad (32) as Dulu Khan (631-634). Sibir Khan Yabgu (14) killed. W. Goktürk Khaganate reunited.

631
New Seyanto state spread from Altai to Khingan and from Gobi desert to Baikal.

631
Kutugur's rebelion against Avars and defeat of Kutugurs by Avars

631
Samo Slavs in 631 beat Frank Army of King Dagobert near Vogatisburg and gain their independence from Franks and Avars

632
Seyanto gave a blow from behind. Ashina Chuni, loyal to traditions of Eastern Kaganate, raised his army against Seyanto. He had 50K army without success.

632
Yishbara Tolis Shad (33) is not trying to re-subjugate Bulgars

632
Kipchaks are not in 10 arrows of Western Kaganate

633
Kubrat unites Bulgar Kuturgur and Uturgur tribes and liberated from W. Goktürk Khaganate.

633
Kubrat organizes state, 2nd=kavkhan, 3rd=lchirguboyl ??

634
Seyanto tribe with 70K wagons keeps independence.

634
Dulu Khan (32) (631-634) dies, his younger brother Tong Shad becomes Yabgu as Yshbara Tolis-Shad Yabgu (634-639).

635
Kubrat escaped dominance of Goktürks and Khazars, by supporting Sibir-Khan in 630. He became independent, defeated Avars. Controlled near- Black Sea steppes

635
Kubrat sent embassy to Constantinople and received title of Patrician. Kubrat's Bulgaria joins Byzantium as Federatae. Byzantium becomes a bordering state with Khazaria of W. Goktürk Khaganate, controlling former Khazar territories.

635
In W Goktürk Kaganate nations that did not receive autonomy were Karluks, Yagma (YanNyan), Kipchaks, Basmals, and Hun (Dulu) tribes Chue, Chumi and Shato

635
Yshbara Tolis-Shad Yabgu reorganizes W. Goktürk Khaganate into 10-arrow Goktürks, of 5 Nushibi and 5 Tele (Dulu) tribal leaders, recognizing them as Shads (blood prince).

636
Bulgaria hostile with Khazars of W. Goktürk Khaganate on East, with Avars on West, with Byzantium on South.

636
NE of Western Goktürk Khaganate controlled by Tele Khan Tong Shad Yabgu, who attempts to unite W. and E. Goktürk Khaganates.

639
Seyanto ally with Gaochan in defense of Gaochan from aggression of Empire Tan. Gaochan is attacked and occupied.

639
Yishbara Tolis Shad (33) died, then (42), then cousin Bagadur, title = Irbis Yshbara Yabguu Khan (37)

639
Capital of 'South Horde' at Chu & Ili

641
Türks in service of Tan Empire are moved to north bank of Khuankhe and serve as a barrier against Seyanto.

641
Seyanto Khan Inan organized expedition against restored Goktürk vassal Khaganate on north bank of Khuankhe. Seyanto army demolished 80%.

641
Kipchaks have 100K people, 40K army, 90 K horses

641
Irbis Yshbara Yabgu Khan executed (37), his brother Yugu-Ukuk (38) selected Khan of Western Goktürk Khaganate (641-651)

641
Kipchak on Altai subordinated to Khan Ükuk Yabgu,

641
Boma on Enisey subordinated to Khan Ükuk Yabgu.

642
Kubrat died in 642, the second year of the reign (641-668) of the Emperor Constans II (Constantine III). Both Theophanes and Nicephorus tell of his leaving behind five sons who separated despite his admonition. Date is inconsistent with Asparukh appearing on Danube only in 679.
642
First Khazar - Arab war (642-652) against Abd Al Rahman

642
Imperial Chinese garrison in Khami deafeats W Goktürks of Irbis Dulu Khan

645
Seyanto Khan Inan died.

646
Remains of Seyanto Horde loose to Empire Tan army and are dispersed. Uygurs fought Seyanto with Empire Tan and become loyal subjects and fight in all wars for Empire.

646
Seyanto Khanate was destroyed by Empire and their allies Uygurs, people were mercilessly wiped out. Remains of Seyanto dispersed by slopes of Beyshan, and joined Goktürks.

646
Empire Tan breakes relations with W Goktürkic Khaganate

649
Türk Chebi Khan horde is resettled in East Khanganate vacated by Seyanto.

650
Irbis becomes first Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate (650?-….).

650
Kipchaks move to Upper Irtysh and E. Kazakhstan steppes under pressure from China and Uygurs

650
Langobards conclude conquest of whole Italia, excluding Ravenna, South Italia and Sicilia.

650
In village Nagi Szent Miklos in Hungary is found famous treasure, 23 golden cups with Türkic inscriptions, dated by Avar period (c 650)

650
Migration of Bulgars to middle Itil, attested to by burial sites in Shilovka and Brusyany. Burials are of Türkic nobility with complex rites and rich implements.

651
With loss of W.Goktürk Khaganate rule, former confedrate Khazaria with attached Bulgar Kutugurs, Alans, Slavs and Itil Bulgars gain independence. Khazars keep Kagan from Ashina dynasty.

651
Defeat of Khazar-Alan army by Abd Al Rahman Arabs in Euthrates battle.

651
W. Goktürks take Tinchjou (Bishbalyk = Head City)

652
End of first Khazar - Arab war (642-652) against Abd Al Rahman

653
Ükuk (38) died, son Chjenchu (39) (653-659)

655
Khazars allied with Alans.

656
Murder of Calif Osman. Civil war in Califate.

656
Founded Khazarian state

656
Advance of Chinese inperians against W Goktürkic Khaganate. Rebelion of Baiyrku, Sige, Bugu and Tonra against Empire Tan. Sogdiana occupied by Chinese (657-700)

658
Great Bulgaria, Baltavar Kubrat's state, is divided into 2 uluses, Western Kara Bulgar and Eastern Ak Bulgar Yorty, separated by river Shir (Don).

658
Kara Bulgar extended from estuary of (Danube) to Shir (Don). Ak Bulgar Yorty extended from Shir (Don) to estuary of Itil (Volga). Border went by river Aksu, including aul Kharka (current Kharkov). Bulyar was included as semi-autonomous beylik.

658
Great Bulgaria's capital Bandja, renamed fron Onoguria (Gr. Phanagoria). Summer stan is Khorysdan or Batavyl ( Lord's stan), present Putivl. In between are two more stans, Tiganak and Baltavar, present Poltava.

659
Tang defeat last rulers of first Goktürkic empire. Chjenchu (39) executed, end of dynasty. Western Goktürkic Kaganate ceased to exist forever. Yshbara Khan died

660
Khan Kubrat Dulo (24) (618-660) died, is buried 13 km from Baltavar, present Poltava, burial excavated in 1912, no anthropological, forensic examination.

660
Kubrat's 1st son Bayan (Batbayan) is elected Baltavr and remains in Great Bulgaria, confederated with Khazars

660
Kubrat's 2nd son Kotrag resettled his Kuturgurs (Kotrags) West of Don, and in 730-740 they spread to E. Azov area to join Kuban Bulgars. Kotrag domain consisted of groups Barsula, Eskel and Bulkar (Bulgar).

660
Kubrat's 3rd son, Atilkese, nicknamed Asparukh (Khan Asparukh) heads Onogurs (Utigurs)

660
Agvanian Djevanshir defeats Khazars

662
Tibetians penetrate Western region to support rebelling Türks

662
Arabs fight Khazars for Derbent

663
Dismemberment of Great Bulgaria - Divided up among Kubrat's five sons, third of which was Asparukh, Khan of Utiguri.

665
With death of Prince Samo first Slavic state is re-intrgrated into Avar Khaganate in 665

665
Kutlug (56) restores E. Goktürk Khaganate, becomes Elteres Khagan (665-691).

667
150K Kumans, Turkmens, Gok-Oguses and Kyrgises, confederated with Khazars, cross Itil from the east. Shambat and Asparukh battle Khazars, loose and flee to Bashtu, present Kiev.

667
Arabs defeat Peroz, last Sassanian shah, and cross Oxus River (Amu Darya) for the first time

668
Peace treaty between Khazars' Kagan Kaban and Kara Bulgar's Baltavar Bat-Boyan. Kara Bulgar is subordnated to Khazar.

669
Split of Kara Bulgar into W. and E. of Dniepr. West is controlled by Shambat and Asparukh, and East, including Bulyar, by Baltavar Bat-Boyan

670
Bat-Boyan Bulgars are defeated by Khazars. Khazars recover territory with east Bulgar (Utugur) and Alan populations.

670
Khazars under Alp-Ilitver defeat Bulgars

671
Large Horde of Kubrat's 3rd son, Atilkese, nicknamed Asparukh, after death of Shambat in 670, moved west with Onogurs (Utigurs) and some Turkmen (Byzantian historians call them Bolgars from now on), to Danube and Pannonia district Kashan, between rivers B

673
Arab raids to Bukhara, across Oxus River

675
Bulgars arrive on Danube under Asparukh

678
Kubrat's 4th son Kuber (Ultzindur?) (Balkor?) moved from S of Crimea his Ultzindurs and Ultzingurs of Hunnish stock to Pannonia under Avars (678-679)

678
Kubrat's 5th son Emnetzur (Altsek) moved his Alciagirs, Alcildzurs and Alpidzurs from Crimea to Italy under Byzantines, to duchy of Benevetto/Abruzi region, Pentapolis at Ravenna.

679
Byzantine's Constantine IV attacks Asparukh Bulgars. Bulgars retaliate, take Scythia and lower Moesia, Pliska becomes Khans' new headquarters.

679
Chuvash may be descendants of Utugur Bulgars and Volgo-Kama Bulgars. Tatars may be descendants of Utugur Bulgars and Volgo-Kama Bulgars.

679
Territorially, Bulgar's split is along Kutugur/Utugur uluses, with Kutugurs independent of Avar and W. Goktürk Khaganates, and Utugurs remaining in W. Goktürk Khaganate sphere.

679
Kubrat's Bulgaria is split into independent (Byzantium Federatae) west Khanate under Asparukh, controlling from Donets on East to Danube on West, and Eastern Ak Bulgar Yorty, subject to Khazar Kagan from Itil to Donets, with capital Onogoria (Gr. Phanago

679
Kipchaks restored Goktürk Kaganate, second component = Sirs, descendants of Seyanto, became 'Kok Goktürk' = Blue Türks, known as Kipchaks from that time

679
Revolt Against Tan Empire

679
Asparukh Bulgars invade Thrace

680
Asparukh Khaganate includes Slavs. Asparukh Khaganate spreads into Dobrudja south of Danube.

680
Asparukh 680 treaty with Slavs recognizes their self-government and territory. Slav princes participate in people assembly along with Bulgarian nobles. state administration consists of a Khan and 12 Great Boyls.

680
Slav's obligation to Bulgars is to pay tribute and supply military contingents. state capital established in Pliska in Moesia.

680
Empire of Avars peaked at end of 7th century (680 AD), after devision of Kubrat Bulgaria between Avars and Khazars, when it reached from Volga to Danube

680
In Avaria, men were laid down in tombs with their horses, arms, and horse-trappings. Tomb objects are characterized by geometrical ornaments pressed upon a print, with a certain degree of Byzantine influence

680
Arab raids to Khwarizm, Samarkand

682
Albanian missionary bishop Israel describes "Kingdom of Huns" (Belendjer) capital Varachan located north of Derbent, and Tangri cult of Northern Dagestan Barandjar (Balandjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bulgars, subordinated to Khazars.

682
Kutlug is proclamed Khagan, title Ilterish (Country Creator) and oranized a second Khanate, appointing his brother Kapagan as Shad, and another brother Tosifu as Yabgy

683
Successful Türkic rebellion led by Kutlug Ilterish (56) and Tonyukuk, restoration of Türkic Goktürk Khaganate

683
Khazar raid to Armenia

684
Khazar raid to Cis-Causasus

688
Greek occupation of Cis-Causasus

689
Otuz-Tatars are hostile to Kutlug Khan state

690
Bulgar Khan Bat-Boyan (660-690) dies, succeeded by his son Bu-Timer (690-700) in vassalage of Khazars

691
Kutlug Khan (56) (682-691) died, succeeded by his brother Mochur (Bak-chor) (Mochjo) (Mochur) (57) (691-716) as Kapagan Khan.

692
Boma live N. of Kyrgyz Khanate

692
Kutlug Khan subordinated Khalka

692
Kipchaks mixed with Kangar (Besenyos, Russ. 'Pecheneg') between Black Irtysh and Syr-Darya in Desht-i-Kipchak

694
Embassy from Kurykans arrived to China. Rebellion of Ashina Suytsy and his alliance with Tibetians. Chinese imperial troops crush Tibetians, Turgeshes and W Goktürks

700
Khazars are frequently allied with Huns of North Caucasus. Alp Elteber of Huns of North Caucasus is a vassal of Khazars. Huns capital city is Varachan (late 10 c).

700
Tatars lived north of Tatabs and Kara-Kibi, on Kerulen tributary of Amur river, in those times mostly engaged in fishing.

700
Oguz tribe federation relocates in great numbers from Orkhon area to vicinity of Talas, then to Syr Darya. Oguz dialect separates from Eastern Türkic, and by 11th century Oguz language of Syr Darya differs from Eastern Türkic in lexicon and pronounciation

701
Khan Asparukh (679-701) of Danube Bulgaria dies, his son or grandson Terval (702-718) succeeds him

703
Busir (Ibousir-Glavan) becomes Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate (703?-….).

703
Khazar royal princess ….. marries Bysantine emperror Justinian II to become Empress Theodora.

704
Ashina Khayn subjugated Semirechye for Empire Tan. Shato subdued without fight. Western Goktürks are subjugated, and Karluks, Huvu and Shunishes accede

705
Khan of Danube Bulgaria Tervel aids Justinian II in regaining his control of Constantinople after a rebellion. Afterwards, Terval is crowned "Caesar"

705
Beginning of systematic Arab conquest of Transoxania. Qutaiba ben Muslim becomes Governor of Khurasan

706
Chinese break negociations with Goktürks

708
Chinese built three fortresses north of Huanhe against Goktürks

709
709 Arabs capture Bukhara and Samarkand. 711 Arabs capture Khiva. 712 Arabs subdue Khwarezm and recapture Samarkand. 713 Arabs sack Kashgar.

711
Khazars help to install Phillipicus as a Byzantine Emperor

711
Goktürks suppress rebelion of Turgeshes. Divisions in Khorezm

712
Khan-Caesar Tervel, after leaving Justinian II to his doom, sees fit to avenge his death by raiding and looting southern Thrace.

712
Kuteyba subjugates Khorezm and takes Samakand. Emperor appoints Mohedo Tutuk a ruler of Samakand

713
Episcopal list of the 'eparchy of Gothia' (eparcia GotqiaV), contained in the so-called 'Notitia of the Isaurians,' provides for a 'Bishop of the Onogurs' (episkopo Onogourwn), missionary suffragan of Crimean Gothic Metropolitan.
713
Arab embassy to China

714
Chinese, under emperor T'ai-tsong, defeat Goktürks at Lake Issyk-Kul.

714
Khazars loose Derbent to Arabs

714
Trurks are defeated at Byshbalyk. Shato subordinate to Empire Tan

715
Chinese beat back Goktürkic attacks on Beytin, and Arabs and Tibetians on Fergana 716 Luchen is taken from Kidanes. Turgeshes rebel against Empire and defeat Chinese and Karluks

715
Ases, and then Yasygs, are cruelly suppressed by Kapagan Khagan

716
Mochur (Bak-chor) (57) (691-716) Qapagan Khan died, after defeating Bayirku of upper Kerulen but killed on return trip. He was succeeded by Mogilyan (Mokilien) (63) (716-734), elder brother of Kul-tegin, installed by Kul-tegin. Peak of second Goktürk empire (716-734)

718
Danube Bulgars under Khan Tervel as federats of Byzantium defeat Arab invasion and save Byzantium. Khan-Caesar Terval (26) (702-718) dies, ?.. becomes Khan (718-725).

718
Orkhon Inscriptions on Tonyukuk slella are created, describing events and providing Türkic perspective. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters. Sources

718
Khazars invade Azerbaijan.

720
Goktürks' victory over Chinese imperians. Kashmirian Radj is given title Van

722
Second Khazar - Arab war (722-737) First campaign of Arabian troops led by Zh. Jirrah in Northern Caucasus against Alans and Khazars

722
Son of Türk Bilge Khagan, Tengru Khan, has 300K army

723
Khazars lose Balanjar to Arabs, move capital to Samandar

723
Start of massive Jewish emmigration to Khazaria (723-944)

724
In Avaria, after about 40 years, i.e., after 720 AD, figures of plants and animals were used more frequently, were cast and decorated. New art shows Türkic Asian features, probably a new population coming from east took place of earlier one

724
Second Jirrah's campaign in Northern Caucasus.

725
Danube Bulgar Khan ..?. (718-725) dies, end of Dulo dynasty. Sevar becomes Khan (725-740). Danube Bulgar Khanate expands.

727
Khazars invade Azerbaijan. Muslam's raid against Khazars

730
Khazar's Barjik leads 300K army to raid Azerbaijan (Albania?). At Arbadil, Khazars defeat entire Arab army.

732
Orkhon Inscriptions on Kul Tegin slella with a large and small inscriptions, and on Tonyukuk slella. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters. Sources

732
Otuz-Tatars moved from Goktürks to Amur-area taiga.

732
Khazar princess Chichek marries Bysantine emperror Constantine V to become Empress Irene.

734
Mogilyan Khan (63) poisoned, his son Yollyg-Tegin (Yijan) (65) died, his brother Bilge Kutlug Khan (66) succeeded as Tengri Khagan (66) (734-741).

735
Fubin annulled statuary. Chinese and foreign (Syanbinian) stratification was fixed and joining Chinese people was impossible. This started a new ethnical substrate. All non-Chinese could only join border army, hated by Chinese element.

735
Campaign of Arabian military leader Mervan Kru in Alania. Alan king Itaz.

737
Arabs force conversion to Islam. …... becomes first Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate to convert to Islam for political reasons (703?-….).

737
Khazars loose Samandar to Arabs, move capital to Itil.

737
Goktürks attack Kucha

740
Danube Bulgaria Khan Sevar (725-740) dies, Kormisos becomes Khan (740-756)

740
Ashina Sin is appointed a ruler of ten tribes, sent west and killed. After his death Dumochji, Yabgu of three tribes is appointed Dumochji, Yabgu of three tribes

740
UYGUR EMPIRE
740 - 1335 A.D
Founder - Kutlug Bilgekul Khan (Bilge Kutlug Tengri Khan)
Area - Central Asia and Northern Mongolia

743
END OF GOKTÜRK EMPIRE
552 - 743 A.D
Founder - Bumin Khan (Tumen)
Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)

744
Ozmysh Khagan (68) (742-743) killed by Basmils. Basmils failed to take control of E. Goktürk Khaganate, and Uygurs, with Karluk help, set Kuli Peilo Khan as Kutlug Bilga Khagan (11) (Tengrida Bolmish El, Qutluq Bilge Qaghan) (742 - 747). Creation of Uygur

744
Uygurs substituted one Türkic people for another, closely related, for hegemony of Mongolia, in the next century (744-840)

747
Khan Marduan of Daghestani Bulgars, Burjans, build a small wooden city, named city Marduan. Khazars called it Mardukan. Present Bulgar (Great Bulgar)

747
Tatars lose a battle to Uygurs N-W of Selenga. Tatars were caught at Keyre spring and river Tri- birkyu, and lost half of army.

747
Ay Tengrida Qut Bolmish, Tutmish Bilge Qaghan (11) dies. Bayanchur (12) (747 -759).

747
Created Shine-usu, Terkhin and Tes inscriptions. Inscriptions are in Old Uygur?? language in Türkic alphabet. Kagan Bayanchur (747-759) relates 6-th c events with "QSR=QASAR". Sources

750
Bulgars live along north-western shore of Caspian Sea

750
After living as neighbors of Chuvash people for over 1,000 years, a part of Hungarians moved south to "Levedia" in approximately 750 AD, while others remained between Itil River and Ural Mountains

750
Kengeres/Pecheneg/Kangar/Besenyos living west of Uygurs and are hostile with them

751
Defeat of Chinese armies at Talas river by a combined forces of Goktürks, Arabs and Tibetans. End of Chinese control over Turkestan. Paper starts spreading to Arabs and on to Europe

752
Tatars lived on eastern border of Uygyria.

753
Ilmish Kutlug Khan is Kara Khan of Goktürks

755
Constantine V (son of Leo III) builds a chain of forts along Bulgarian border. War begins between Danube Bulgars and Byzantines. After initial success, Bulgars are defeated.

755
Created Orkhon Inscription on Mogilyan Bilge Khan slella. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters. Sources

756
Danube Bulgaria Khan Kormisos (740-756) dies, Vinekh becomes Khan (756-761)

759
El Tutmish Alp Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. El Tekin (13) (759 - 779).

760
Khazar Khagan Boghatur (760?-…)

760
Bulgar Khan Tat-Ugek renames city Marduan to Bulgar, which becomes a center of small Burjan kingdom.

761
Khan Vinekh of Danube Bulgaria (756-761) and all his kin assassinated. Teletz of Ugain clan and a leader of conspiracy is elected new Khan (761-763).

762
Khazars, led by As Tarkhan, invade and re-conquer Cis-Caucasia. 764 Khazars take Tbilisi

763
Danube Bulgaria Khan Telets seizes southern Thrace. Bulgars loose battle of Anchiel. Khan Telets (761-763) is murdered by hostile Boils for his failure. Umar, then Bayan (763-765) is elected new Khan

765
Danube Bulgaria Khan Bayan (763-765) is replaced by Toktu, then Magan, then Telerig (c.765-777) assumes Bulgarian Khan-hood.

772
War between Greeks and Danube Bulgars. Khazaria unites with Alania

775
Leo IV "Khazar" emperor of Byzantine Empire (775-780)

777
Danube Bulgaria Khan Telerig (c.765-777) is replaced by Kardam (c.777-c.803)

779
Alp Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Tonga Bagha (14) (779 - 789).

780
Leo II, greatson of Khazar Kagan, ruler of Abkhazia. (780-….)

786
Khazars help Abkhazia to free from Byzantine, and Abkhazia becomes Khazarian dependency

789
Tengride Bolmish Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Taras (15) (789 - 790).

790
Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Aychur (16) (790 - 795).

790
Shato subordinate to Tibet. Tibetians take Beytin and Kucha (Ansi) 791 Tibetians take Khotan

791
Franks met resistance on their campaign in area of Austria and Slovenia

792
Franks met with little resistance on their 2 campaigns in area of Austria and Slovenia because of Avar/Bulgar/Slav draught and famine

792
Avar leaders fought each other between 792 and 795, but Kaghan and Yugrush, his fellow ruler, were killed by their own men, who blamed them for draught and famine

794
Tibetians defeat Uygurs 795 Tatabs and Tatars are defeated by Chinese

794
According to archaeological evidence, Avars populated Banat, Crishana, and parts of Transylvania. Their number in Transylvania is not very high, but this is difficult to estimate. As in other territories, they probably lived together with Slavic tribes

795
Avars power broken, Franks destroyed residence of Kaganat. Nestor chronicle stipulates that all Avars died, but some retired to east of Tisza. Last reliable mention of Avars is from 822, and in 873 there is a record of uncertain character.

795
Ay Tengride Ulugh Bolmish Alp Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Qutluq (17) (795 - 805)

796
Avar Kaghan and his warlords abandoned their capital Rhing before Frankish host reached it in 796, but 90 per cent of Charlemagne's horses that advanced as far as Gyõr in 791 also perished of famine

796
Avar state, weakened by internal dissent, was destroyed by a combined Frankish and Bulgarian Khan Kardam attack in 796.

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In Russian
Bulgars Dateline 800-1099 AD Continued



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Re: Да бе да,кво ше кажеш за тези писания,а
    #354153 - 03.07.2004 02:51 [Re: Боила]

BULGARS
Bulgars, Bolgars, Bulghars, Bolghars and other variations

Bulgars 4000 BC-336 AD
Bulgars 337-499 AD
Bulgars 500-599 AD
Bulgars 600-799 AD
Bulgars 800-1099 AD
Bulgars 1100-1299 AD
Bulgars 1300-1922 AD


800-1099 AD
DATELINE

Time
Events

803
Danube Bulgaria Khan Kardam (c.777-c.803) is replaced by Krum (38) elected to Bulgarian Khan-hood (803-814). Bulgars under Khagan Krum unite with Franks to crush Avar Khaganate.

804
Khan Krum's army has 30,000 chain armored heavily armed cavalry, vs. Byzantium's less than 400.

804
Khan Krum venture to become independent suzerain, lays off federatae status, become Tzar, and absorbs Slavic and Avar territories and populations. Policy program for next half century.

804
Charlemagne and then Pepin defeat and subjugate Avar Khan in Pannonia, rob 2 centuries of treasuries. In 805 Avar Khagan Zodan baptized with name Theodore. Theodore continued ruling as a subject of Charlemagne

804
Joint forces of Bulgars and Franks crush and annihilate Avar Khaganate.

805
End of AVAR EMPIRE in Europe
558-805 AD
Founder - Khan Bayan
Area - Pannonia, Balkans, Bessarabia, N. Pontic steppes to Tanais and Itil (Total Area - 2,500,000 Km2)
Seat of Avar kaghan and his warlords east of Danube in Pannonia, known as Rhing

805
Ay Tengride Qut Bolmish, Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Unknown (18) (805 - 808).

806
Manicheans arrive to Chanan from Uygurs

807
Danube Bulgars and Greeks fight.

808
Ay Tengride Qut Bolmish, Alp Bilge Qaghan. Unknown (19) (808 - 821).

813
Bulgars take Adrianopole.

813
In 813, Krum led a large army of Slavs and Avars against Byzantium and besieged Constantinople without success. He died in following year.

814
April 13, 814 While preparing another attack against Byzantines, Khagan Krum (38) bursts a blood vessel and dies. Khagan Omurtag (41) assumes Bulgarian Khan-hood (814-814). Boils rule Bulgaria - Chok (?) (?_?).

814
Khan Ditsen (40) (814-816)

816
Chok and Boils Danube Bulgars conclude a peace treaty with Byzantines to last thirty years, to be renewed every ten years.

816
Khan Omurtag (41) (816-831)

817
Inhabitants of Samandar revolt against attempts by Khazar Khagan Karak introduce Judaism

817
Manichean missionaries are exiled to Uyguria

818
Danube Bulgars thrust to north as far as Kiev (818-820).

819
Kara Bulgarian Khan Aydar (819-855)

820
Khazars found Sambata (sam = high, bat = stronghold) and Kiev ( kui = low, ev = settlement), settled by Khazars and Magyars.

821
Preslav is completed - new Bulgarian capital.

821
Kun Tengride Ulugh Bolmish, Kuch Kuchluk Bilge Qaghan. Unknown (20) (821 - 824).

824
Tengride Qut Bolmish, Kuch Bilge Qaghan. Hazar Tekin (21) (824 - 832).

827
Danube Bulgars and Franks fight.

830
Khazar Khagan Khan-Tuvan (Dyggvi) (830?-…)

830
Construction of Sarkel fortress by Khazars with Byzantium's help

830
Khzarian Kabars rebel against Bek (830-862).

830
First Rus Khaganate is established as ulus by Itil Bulgarian Khan Aydar (819-855)

831
Danube Bulgaria Khan Malamir (42) (831-837)

832
Danube Bulgars and Franks sign peace treaty.

832
Tengride Qut Bolmish, Kuchluk Bilge Qaghan. Kho Tekin (22) (832 - 839).

833
Khan-Tuvan (Dyggvi) sends an embassy to Byzantine asking to send engineers-fortificators to build fortresses against Rus' attacks.

836
Danube Bulgar Khan Presijan (43)(836-852)

837
Magyars crossed Dnieper from east around 837, occupying steppe as far as Danube by year 860

837
Atelkuzu, largely consisting of Ukraine, Moldavia and Eastern Wallachia, favoured survival at time of warming. As drought spread, it was possible to move flocks up-river to cooler, wooded regions, where fishing provided an extra food for semi-nomads.

837
Magyar tribes, and chiefly ruling caste, moved up river as far as Kharka, Bashtu, and Galich

839
Kho Tekin (22) (832 - 839) dies. Kichik Tekin (23) (839 - 840)

840
Destruction of Uygur Orkhon Empire by Kirgizes. End of Uygur leadership of E. Goktürkic Khaganate

840
E. Goktürk Khaganate Kichik Tekin (23) dies

840
In about 840-850 AD, Hungarians were forced to move westwards to Atelkuzu (Etelkoz) and they then occupied Carpathian Basin in 896 AD living there to this day

841
Kyrgyz ambassador arrived in China

842
Muhamad ibn Musa Al Khwarizmi works in Khazarian Kagan's palace, sent there by Caliph Al-Wathiq.

850
Bashkorts used prior to 9c antroponym 'Ishtek/Istek' (Asses, Ossian/Yassian people), and from 9 c became known antroponym 'Bashkort' from (according to Arab author Salam Tardjman) Khan Bashgird, whose horde lived in present area.

852
Khan Presijan (43) (836-852) controls Danube Bulgaria extending from Panonnia, Transilvania, Wallachia, Moldavia, Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia, to Donets ??, with numerous inhabitants (Slavs, Bulgars, Thracians (Vlach, Wallach, Dacian, Get)

855
Kara Bulgarian Baltavar Khan Aydar (819-855) died, Gabdulla Djilki (Shilki) becomes Khan (855-882)

859
Khan Shilki lost battle to Khazar Kagan Iskhak at Baltavar (Poltava)

859
Kara Bulgar Khan Gabdulla Djilki (Shilki) lost Bashtu (Kiev) and Urus (Novgorod) uluses to Khazars. Khazars oganize them as ulus Rus. Khagan Iskhak appoints Norman leader Dir (Bulg. Djir) of Slavic militia in Bashtu a ruler of Rus and Norman Ascold (Bulg. As-Khalib) a Viceregent of Rus

859
Shilki settles in c. Karadjar (Chernigov) with territory

859
Shilki's brother Lachyn becomes Khan of remaining Kara Bulgar with a capital in Khorysdan (Putivl)

859
Kara Bulgar Bashtu becomes Khazarian Kiev

861
Religious debate in Khazarian court (khazarian Polemic) between Cyril and Methodius, Rabbi Yitzhak Ha Sangari, and Muslem cleric Farabi Ibn Kora.

861
Khazar Bulan Bek, nobility and some common people convert to Judaism.

862
Chronist Nestor gives 862 as year of creation of Rus. Ruses are rulers of Slavs. Ruses live in military settlements and "feed" by spoils, a part of which was rendered to Jewish Khazars. Slavs are engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry. Russes are eth

862
Viking warrior Hrorekr (Riurik) leads expedition to Staraya Lagoda and occupied city in 862

862
Hrorekr (Riurik) (862-879) takes Novgorod, the other brothers take two other cities. Eventually Riurik gained all three cities. Gradual conquest of surrounding Slavic states, raided as far as Constantinople. At his death, his son Ingvar is too young to ru

863
Khan Shilki re-unites Bashtu and Karadjar with Kara Bulgar. Knyaz Dir (Bulg Djir) submits to Shilki, Ascold (Bulg As-Khalib) escapes to Galidj (Novgorod? Galich?) Shilki restores himself as Baltavar of Kara Bulgar with capital at Baltavar (Poltava)

865
Khan Barys of Itil Bulgaria beylyk founded by Tat-Ugek, died, and Shilki, Khan of Kara Bulgar with a capital in Baltavar (Poltava) is proclamed Khan of Itil Bulgaria (865-882).

865
City Bulgar becomes a capital of Itil Bulgaria.

865
Shilki proclames Itil Bulgaria an Islamic state, without a Califate recognition

866
Established Kara Bulgar station Kolyn (Khlynov, Vyatka)

868
First revolt of Türkish soldiers against Abbasid Calif al-Mutaawakkil (847-861)

868
Ahmad ibn Tulun, a Türkish praetorian of Abbasid Califate, becomes an independent ruler of Egypt and extends his rule to Syria

875
Khazars built a glass factory in Hrodna (present Belarus)

879
879-882 Post Riurik (862-879), pre-Olaf period in Rus ulus

882
Khan Shilki (855-882) died, Bat-Ugyr becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria (882-895).

882
Khan Alabuga of a Baryn line of Sabans starts a city, named later Bilyar.

882
Olaf (Russ. Oleg) (882-913) First serious Rus expansion. Dominated several E. Slav tribes as tribute states.

889
After 889, Besenyos break through Khazarian border guards and replace Magyars from Levedia

893
Catastrophically cold winter of 892-893 froze Itil and Don, made it possible for Besenyos, whom Oguzes attacked, to flee across frozen rivers into Atelkuzu, although some of them were stuck east of Yaik river

893
Besenyos stop their pusuit of Majars at Dniepr, spend winter near mouth of river Buh

894
Majar Prince Levente leads Khazar Kabars against Bulgaria

894
Besenyos in alliance with Bulgars start a second attack of Majars, forcing them to leave Atilkiji (Itil-Kiji, Atelkuzu) for Transylvania and Upper Tisza region

895
Bat-Ugyr (882-895) abdicates. Baltavar (Elteber) Almush (Almas), eldest son of Shilki, becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria, accclamed in city Bulgar (895-925).

895
Khan Almush Kara Bulgar census lists 550K, 200K are Saban-speaking Bulgars, 180K-Ars (Udmurts, Finno-Ugors), 170K-Modjars

895
Alans and Bulgars freed from Khazar power

895
Some Khazar Kabars settle in Transilvania/Hungary with Majars.

895
Avaria (Pannonia) is divided between Slavic state of Great Moravia under Svyatopolk, and Türkic Khanate of Bulgaria. Bulgar Onogundur (or Onogur) settle there, possibly giving name to Hungary.

900
Ibn Ruste lists three branches of Itil Bulgars: "first branch was called Bersula, second - Esegel, and third - Bolgar".

902
Varangian Rus mercenaries are mentioned serving in Byzantine naval expedition to Crete. Rus mercenaries also serve Khazars

904
Olaf (Russ. Oleg), Prince of Kiev (882-916 ), remains a vassal of Avar Khaganate, divided between Bulgarian principalities.(In 859 to Khazars??)

909
Rus raiders (druzhina) with Varangian (Varyag) allies captures Khazarian fort Abezgun on Caspian Sea

910
First missions of Christian preachers from Byzantium to Alania. Establishing Alan arch-episcopate. Peter as first arch-bishop of Alania.

913
Kengeres, once a part of confederation of W. Goktürk Khaganate, were driven toward lower Syr-Darya and Aral Sea by Karluk Türks. They were grazing their herds between Yaik and Itil rivers.

913
North of Sea of Azov Kengeres occupied Levedia, taking it from Majars, and then drove them from Atilkiji area between Dniepr and Lower Danube

913
Ingvar (Russ. Igor) (913-945) re-established control over Eastern Slavs

913
Khazars demolish Rus marauding expedition fleet

915
Besenyos appear before Kiev for first time in force. Prince Ingvar (Russ. Igor) signs peace treaty with them establishing a frontier between Don and Dniester

920
Khazars fight with Burtas (Steppe Alans or Asses), Oguz, Byzantines, Kengeres and Kara Bulgars.

920
Itil Bulgar Baltavar Almush (Almas) allies with Caliphate as counterbalance to Khazars. Beginnng of minting of Bulgarian dirkhems

922
Itil Bulgars congress of Bulgarian tribes adopted Islam as state religion, built mosques and schools. Itil Bulgars start transition to Arabic script from Türkic script

922
Baltavar Almush takes a title 'Emir' as obligation to rule in accordance with Quran

922
City Bilyar becomes a province Baityuba capital and a 3rd sized city after Bulgar and Bandja

922
City Nur-Suvar (922-1246). Present Tatarskiy (Sham-Suar).

922
Established city Tukhchi, renamed in 1219 Djuketun (Chistopol)

925
Governor of province Mardan-Ballak Balus starts a city, named later Banja (Banja-Burtas). Present Syzran.

925
Almush (895-925) died, Khasan becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria (925-930). Almush is buried in Fortress Gulistan.

930
Seljuks are from tribe Kynyk - one of 24 Oguz tribes. Oguzes live between Syr Darya, Caspian and Aral seas. Kynyks live near delta of Syr Darya.

930
Yabgu rules Oguzes. Leader of Seljuk clan, Temir-Yalyg, nicknamed Dukak (Dokak), has a high position. He objects to a raid by Yabgu against other Türkic tribes, and sours relations with Yabgu. He and his tribe may be Moslems.

930
Itil Bulgaria has 30 cities. Khasan built: Matak Nukrat Bandja (Samara ) (Center of Mardan-Bellak ulus) Bulyar (citadel in Bilyar) Kamysh Simbir Gazan-Deber Kashan Tukhcha Tau-Kerman (Sviyajsk) Tash-Bulgar Subash-Simbir Karadjar Djilan

930
Khasan (925-930) died, Yalkau Michail becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria (930-943).

930
Khazars ally with Alans who adopt Judaism, and arrange a dynastic marriage

932
KARAHANID (Karahanli, Ilek (ilig)-khanid, al-Hakaniye, el-Haniye, al-Afrasiyab)
932 - 1212 A.D
Founder - Saltuk Bugra Han
Area - All Trans-Oxus area including area between Issyk and Balkash Lakes Initial center in Kashgar

932
Khazars ally with Oguzes.

934
Kengeres join in Hungarian invasion of Byzantian Thrace.

939
Khazar Baliqchi Pesakh defeats Rus

943
Yalkau Michail died (930-943), Mohammed becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria (943-976).

944
Kengeres join in Prince Ingvar of Kiev raid on Byzantium.

945
Helga (Russ. Olga) (945-962) is energetic in subjugating Slavs, exacting terrible revenge upon Drevlians, burying alive and burning their most distinguished men alive in a bath in Kiev, massacring 5,000 at her husbands funeral feast, burning Izkorosten with many killed or enslaved

944
All Gothic cities-colonies are robbed to foundation in raid of Prince Ingvar of Kiev

945
Start of Itil Bulgar-Turkmen 15 year war

949
Talib, junior son of Khan Gazan, and grandson of Almush, organizes a regular army in Itil Bulgaria.

950
There is information about Bashkir Confederation in 9-12c under Masim Khan, starting with Khan Bashkort. Bashkir 'Shejere' listed Khans Muyten Bey and Maiky Bey at approx. 1220, witha list of 10 predesessors covering 9-12c.

950
Al Mas'udi (died in 956) describes 4 Türkic peoples: Ydjni, Badjkurt (Maskurts, Masguts, called by Herodotus (5-th c. BC), Strabo (c.64 BC - A.D. 20), and C. Plinius Secundus (62-113 AD) Massagetae Scythians), Badjanak (Besenyos), Nukardi

950
Conversion of Karakhanids and Uighurs from Buddhism to Islam under Satuq Bughra Khan (d.955)

950
Magyars living in Lebedia are vassals of Khazars.

960
End of Itil Bulgar-Turkmen 15 year war. Chief Turkmen Khan Arslan is beheaded by Bulgar sardar Kukcha Amir.

960
Besenyos live in Moldova (10th cent.-1171)

960
…... becomes second Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate to convert to Islam (960?-….).

960
Karahanid Satuk's son, Musa (Baytas) defeated eastern Khan Arslan Han and carried off this branch of dynasty. Entire Karahanli State becomes Muslim (960). Afterwards, forced diffusion of Islam among C. Asian Türks turned into holy war. First case among Türks to abandon tradition of freedom of convitions and to force conversion of subject populations

961
After Dukak death, Oguz Yabgu appoints Dukak’s son Seljuk Syu-Bashi as head of army. Seljuk evacuates his tribe to Sugura, near Jend (Hojdent), bordering with Moslem countries. Relocation may be caused by Kipchak wictory over Oguz State or shotage of pastures

961
Seljuks (Salchukiyans, Sakachikas) together with Kynyk clan and other Oguz clans leave winter capital of Oguz State Yenikent (Ruins of present Jankent) between Caspian and Aral, with their cattle of horses, camels, sheep and cows, to Maverannakhr .

961
M Kashgari: To live with Moslem Türks, multitudes of Seljuk tribes adopted Islam. Seljuk adopted Islam for political possibilities, and asked neighboring Bukhara and Khorezm to send Moslem scholars. Prior, they were called Turkmens, Karluks and Oguzes

961
Oguz Yabgu's Oguses arriving in Jend to collect annual taxes are driven out by Seljuks under pretext "We are not paying taxes to infidels", and started juhad war against Oguz State with Seljuk’s title Gazi. Start of independent Seljuk Beylyk in Jend.

962
Svyatoslav (962-972) first Rus Knyaz with Slavic name. Numerous campaigns to assert his authority over eastern Slavs. Invaded Khazaria and destroyed its capitl Itil, and its major fortresses Samander and Sarkel. Allied with Constantinople against Danube Bulgars

962
Türkic Ghaznavid dynasty is established in Afghanistan

962
GAZNELI EMPIRE
962 - 1183 A.D
Founder – Alptekin
Area - from Trans-Oxus to Ganges River, from Caspian to steppes of Pamir (Total Area - 4,700,000 Km 2)

964
Kengeres seriously threaten Khazaria

965
Byzantine governor (strategos) of Chersonesus asks Svyatoslav for aid against Khazars. Svyatoslav campaign to Don. En route he attacks Volga Bulgars. He raids Sarkel, Itil, and Tmutarkhan, also captures Chersonesus

965
Svyatoslav possibly signed agreement with Besenyos before crossing their territory. He allies with Oguzes. Purpose to gain tribute from Viatchi on Oka by removing their Khazar overlords. He also conquers Yasians and Kasogians in Taman-Kuban area.

965
Kkazar Kagan temporarily converts to Islam for political reasons

965
Itil Bulgars gain independence after defeating Khazars.

966
Bandja (Fanagoria), capital of Great Bulgaria in VII c, destroyed by Kiev Knyaz Svyatoslav. Escaped inhabitants established New Bandja in Jiguli on Itil (Murom setlement).

966
Khan Mohammed established fort Simbir (Simbirsk)

967
Knyaz Svyatoslav of Kiev seizes Khazar capital Itil

969
Khazaria, broken by Svyatoslav (called Barys by Bulgars), is divided between Itil Bulgaria and N. Caucasus Saklans.

969
Inflow of silver dirhams from Bulgaria and Khazaria stops

969
Saklans receive territory S. of rivers Sal and Kum, Shir (Don), Kuper-Kubar (Khoper), Boryn-Inesh (Voronej). Khin (Sarkel, Belaya Veja) is a province ruled by Bulgar's vali.

970
Khan Mohammed established fort Balyn (Suzdal) in Mary land

972
8 Besenyo (Bedjenek) tribes, under Khan Kura, of Kipchak stock with Oguz element, freed of Khazar dominance, defeat Rus Knyaz Svyatoslav and make a drinking cup of his scull. Bedjenek's continuous figts with Khazars, Byzantines and Russ.

976
Mohammed died (943-976), Talib becomes Khan of of Itil Bulgaria (976-981).

981
Itil Bulgaria Khan Talib (976-981) died, Timar becomes Khan (981-1004).

985
Türkic Karakhanid and Gaznevit, and Iranian Samanid states surround Seljuk Beylyk. Seljuks fight with Karakhanids and Samanids. Samanids give Karakhanid Yabgu Arslan Israel with Oguzes control of Nur, near Bukhara.

985
Seljuq Türks, a ruling tribe of Oguz, move to vicinity of Bukhara.

986
Khazars present Judaism to Knyaz Voldemir (Russ.Vladimir) of Kiev, Itil Bulgars present Islam.

988
Voldemir consolidates his possession of conquered city-states through adoption of single state religion. He orders conversion of subject people and launches built-up of Christian churches. Negotiations for military aid with Emperor Basil II end in agreeme

994
Formation of Türkic-Ghaznavid dynasty in present day Afganistan

999
Destruction of Persian Samanid dynasty by Türkic tribes.

1000
Some Khazars in Kievan Rus are Slavicized and adopt East Slavic language (1000-1300).

1004
Itil Bulgaria Khan Timar (981-1004) died, Masgut becomes Khan (1004-1006).

1006
Itil Bulgaria Khan Masgut (1004-1006) died, Ibragim becomes Khan (1006-1025).

1010
Kipchaks are pressed by Kumosi- Kimaks and then by Kidanes and move west

1016
Last Khazar Khagan Georgius Tzul is cuptured by combined army of Byzantine Basil II and Sfengus, brother of Kiev's Grand Prince Voldemir. Khazaria loses last independence and territories of Crimea and Taman.

1016
End of HAZAR EMPIRE
602-1016 A.D
Founder - no historical data for founder, its greatest ruler was Hakan Yusuf.
Area - Hazars separated from Goktürks and formed a state from Caucasian Mntns to Danube and N. Pontic area

1020
Kipchaks occupy Middle and Lower Donets basin, lower Don and N.Azov. Earliest Kipchak gravestone monuments are located west of Itil

1024
Lavrentiev Chronicle dates establishment of Suzdal in Merya land

1025
Itil Bulgaria Khan Ibragim (1006-1025) died, Azgar becomes Khan (1025-1028).

1025
One of Seljuk chiefs, Arslan Israil Yabgu, serves as auxiliary to Karakhanid's Ali-Tegin, against Ghazavids.

1026
Kengeres invasion of Byzantium is repulsed by Constantine Diogenes..

1028
Itil Bulgaria Khan Azgar (1025-1028) abdicated, Ashraf becomes Khan (1028-1061).

1029
Kipchaks control steppes from Itil to Irtysh

1032
Torgul-beg , with Daud and Arslan Israil Yabgu, acquires control of E. Iran.

1035
Itil Bulgaria Khan Azgar established fort Khazar (Voronej)

1036
Itil Bulgaria Khan Azgar established city Tyumen, center of Tubdjak ulus (Tyumen)

1040
SELCUK EMPIRE
1040 - 1157 A.D
Founder – Seljuk
Area - East, Balkash and Issyk Lakes and Tarim Derya; West, Aegean and Mediterranean; North, Aral, Caspian Sea, Caucasian and Black Sea; South, area including Arabia (Area - 10,000,000 Km 2)

1051
Kengeres invade Byzantium.

1054
Seljuks, under Tügral Beg, capture Baghdad, Abbasid capital, from Buwayhids, establish Seljuq Sultanate, and become official protectors of Caliphate.

1054
Rus chronicles record appearance of Guz people, pushed by Kipchaks - a branch of Kimaks of middle Irtysh and of Ob.

1055
Rus claims that majority of Kipchak tribes have crossed Itil and occupy E. Europian steepes.

1055
Ipatian Chronicle reports first arrival of Kipchaks at border of Pereyaslav principality

1059
Yabgu Arslan Israel with Oguzes fights Karakhanids, and withdraw with booty, leaving Samanid heir Ismail El Muntasyr, who loses war with Karakhanids,and dies. Samanid state desintegrates, Karakhanids take over Maverannakhr, and Gazavids take Horasan.

1060
Kipchaks replace Besenyos (Bedjenek) from N Caucasus steppes. Stan of Kipchak Khans is located on river Sunj. N Caucasus steppes is an important component of Deshti-Kipchak.

1063
Beginning of reign of Seljuc Alp Arslan

1064
Kengeres invade Byzantium, across Thrace to gates of Constantinople..

1065
600K Oguzes crossed Danube, devastated Balkans to Thessalonica. Emperor Constantine X Ducas, and then Kengeres and Bulgars, who were ruled at that time from Byzantium, annihilated them. Remains of Oguzes were subjugated, eliminated or assimilated by Kipch

1065
Visit of Alanian king Durguleit Great to Georgian king Bagrat IV in Kutais.

1065
Three Türkic peoples inhabit steppes N. of Lake Balkhash: Oguz (Ghuz, Torks, Ouzoi, Uzes, Türkmen), Kimaks/Kipchak of middle Enisey of Ob, and Kirghiz. Ogur group is distinguished from Oguz Türkic people that they had Y mutated to J (DJ).

1169
Prince of Suzdal, Andrei Bogoliubskii, sacked Kiev, then moved seat of Great Prince to Vladimir, capital of Suzdal

1070
Turks in Karahanli State engage in cultural and scientific activities. Turkish written with Uighur and Arabic alphabets becomes literary language and literature spread for the first time. Karahanli people exchange with Gazneli and other state sultans in Turkish written in Uighur letters

1070
Most ancient monument of Islam era in Türkic is "Kutadgu Blig" written by Yusuf Has Hacib in 1069-1070 in Uighur and Arabic letters about ideal administration system of a state

1071
Kengeres, in service of Byzantium, desert Emperor Romanus Diogenes V (1067-1071) in favor of Oguz Sultan Alp Arslan.

1072
Beginning of reign of Seljuc Malik Shakh.

1072
Marriage of Maria of Alania to Byzantine emperor Michael VII Duca Parapinaces (1071-1078 d. 1078). Marriage of Georgian king George III with Alanian princess Burduhan

1073
Probably grandson of Mohammed b. Yusuf Kadir Han, Great Khan of Eastern Karahanli State, Mahmut Kashgari work, titled "Divan-i Legat it-Turk" written in Baghdad in 1073-1077, gave examples of dialects of various Türkic peoples ranging from Byzantine borders to borders of China. He wrote about geography of Türkish cities, political and economical life of Türks and their beliefs, gave examples of literary works and ancient epics and folk literature that did not survive

1076
Itil Bulgaria Khan Akhad (1061-1076) deposed, Adam becomes Khan (1076-1118).

1076
Capital of Itil Bulgaria is transferred from city Bulgar to city Bilyar

1077
HARZEMSHAH
1077 - 1231 A.D
Founder - Kudrettin Mehmet (Harzemshah)
Area - Persia, Southern Caucasia, Dagestan, Afghanistan and most of Central Asia. (Total Area - 5,000,000 Km 2)

1078
Daughter of Burduhan and George III is crowned as Queen Tamar on Georgian throne

1087
Kengeres invade Byzantium across Thrace, are driven back, and defeat Alexius Comneus.

1088
Former Khan, Emir Akhad Moskha built in Batyshes' (Russ. Vyatiches) land fort Moskha (Caw), now Moscow (Moskva).

1089
King of Ovs (As, Alans) David Soslan's son marries Queen Tamar

1091
Kipchaks under Togortak and Maniak are allied with Byzantium under Alexius Comnenus, and together crush Kengeres army.

1096
Rabbi Nissim: Seventeen Khazarian communities join nomads (Kengeres, Bulgars, Oguses)

1099
Khan Bonyak Cumans defeat Hungarian army of King Coloman Beauclerc at Przemysl

1099
Formation of Karachai-Balkarian (Alan) people completed.

1099
Tatars are beaten by Kerayit Türks' Khan Torgul, son of Khan Cyriacus(Qurjaquz), son of Marcus(Marguz) Buyiruq

1099
Tatars lived since at least 8th cent. on south bank of Kerulen river near Bor Nor to Khingan range. On north bank of Kerulen to Onon river roved neghbouring Mongols. On west bank of Selenga river to Black Irtysh river roved neighboring Naiman Türks.

1099
200,000 Kerayit Türks, Nestorian Christians since 1009, roved neighboring south of Selenga river, on upper Orkhon, to Karakorum. Tatars are confederated as Tokuz Tatars (Nine Tatars) and Otuz Tatars (Thirty Tatars).

1099
Tatars are redoubtable warriors and ranked among fiercest of all people.

1099
Tatars constitute a serious danger to Sino-Tungustic kingdom of Kin. Kin used early Chingiz Khan to attack Tatars from Northwest.

Back
In Russian
Bulgars Dateline 1100-1299 AD Continued

Аре стига ти толкова.Дано сега разбереш ,че Българите са доста по-стара нация от твоите турки,а.И на тепсия ти го донресох.дано не те мързи да четеш


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bulgarite
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Re: Немам
    #354343 - 03.07.2004 14:49 [Re: Боила]

Nau4no Obosnovani FAKTI!

Estimated Racial Composition

Bulgaria = 60% East Mediterranean, 15% Alpine, 15% Dinaric, 5% Turanid, 5% Nordish

Bulgarite sa sbir6tina ot nomadski plemena, a ne niakakva opredelena etni4eska grupa, koeto suvsem ne ozna4ava, 4e sa po-nis6i ot ostanalite ob6nosti, v slu4ai , 4e go razbira6 taka!. Edinstveno niakoi bg izto4nici tvurdiat obratnoto, to e iasno za6to- sram gi e da si priznaiat, 4e vuv venite im te4e mongoloidna kruv, no v interes na istinata v BG pove4eto hora sa murgavi i imat aziatski 4erti.


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Re: Немам
    #354665 - 03.07.2004 21:14 [Re: bulgarite]

Не е въпроса дали ни е срам ,че имаме монголоидни черти.Въпроса е от къде е оригиналноста ни,т.е.произхода.Сега има много теории.Но мисля че е по-важен корена и от къде произлизаме първоначално.Лично аз се гордея с монголоидния си произход,ако е такъв.Но що не можете да разберете бе хора, че корена ни е много по древен от тюркски,хунски и други националности.Естествено е ,че сме смесени с вековете.Кой не е.Даже и германците са.Колкото и да им е криво.Колко процента от немската нация има галски(френски)ген,колко има саксонски и колко славянски и викингски.Кои са Готите,а?И те са индоевропейски преселници.На тоя свят май няма чиста нация.неможе да има.И изобщо не ми пробутвай теория за низша и висша нация.Само климата и бита определя коя народност е по-развита и коя не.Даже и римляните са смесени-Илири,ломбарди,гърци и колко още племена?Езика на една нация не определя гена и.Език се асимилира и променя с вековете.Така ,че какво искате да ми кажете.Пример-унгарският днес няма нищо общо с маджарския по онова време.Нито италианскиа,нито френския,нито германския,нито пък славянския или гръцкия.Да не говорим за Българския.Значи хуните са асимилирани от българите ,но пък българите са приели техен език-е това е един пример само.Но Българска култура е имало още преди 4000 г.пр.н е.и това е факт.От там нататък историята си има ръка как ще се смеси и как ще се преобразява.

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bulgarite
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Re: Немам
    #354700 - 03.07.2004 22:08 [Re: Boila]

Vuprosa ti e absurden, tui kato bulgarite ne sa nito rasa, nito opredelena etni4eska grupa. Te sa nositeli na smeseni geni, taka, 4e i duma ne moje da stava za koren, osobeno puk, kogato govorim za subvremennite bulgari.

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Ивайло
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Re: Ами
    #354808 - 04.07.2004 00:49 [Re: bulgarite]

Унгарците имат 20% тюркски примес, но това не ги прави тюрки. Ако дадеш такива данни за която и да е друга страна, никъде няма да е по-различно. А и малцинства има навсякъде. Така че, това за сбирщината са пълни глупости. Кои са номадски племена - медитериан ли - средиземноморски тип (типът на цяла Южна Европа), или пък динарик(доколкото знам предимно сред славяните). Били обяснил, кои са алпин?
5% тюркски тип е потвъждавано и от други изседвания - това окончателно опровергава глупостите, че древните българи били тюркски народ.
Медитериан, нордик, а предполагам и динарик са "индоевропейски", т.е. - индо-арийски типове. (терминът е сменен след 2 св. война, защото звучал много нацистки. А и индоарийски няма общо с туземното мургаво индийско население, а с ариите, които са се населили в Северна Индия в древността, а от там са се разселили към Европа. По това време на север от Индия е древна Бакрия (така я произнасят гърците). Индийците й викат Балхара, китайците - бо-ло, арабите - бургар. Столицата й е град Балх и съществува като град и до днес. Един от владетелите й се преселва в Индия и основава една от първите индийсдки династии - династията Кардама. В "Махабхарата" името на българите се споменава над 70 пъти.
Явно става дума за едни и същи събития.

Дай нещо по-подробно за източника на данните.
А кой от всичките типове е монголоиден. От тези които изброяваш не видях такъв. Тюрки и монголи са съвсем различни типове. Е Ами?


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Ивайло
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Re: Ами
    #354829 - 04.07.2004 01:05 [Re: Ивайло]

Цитат:

v BG pove4eto hora sa murgavi i imat aziatski 4erti.



Щях да те питам дали нямаш зрителни увреждания, ако не пишеше не компютър. Явно става дума за мозъчни увреждания и по-точно за запъване като магаре на мост.
Даваш данни, които показват точно обратното, а после си продължаваш каквото баба знае

Да не говорим, че и тези типове са доста условни величини в главите на учените книжни плъхове. Например има ли действителна разлика между "източен" и "западен" средиземноморски тип (медитериан) или са условни географски разделения. И още сума ти такива "подробности", които дават възможност всякак да се спекулира с проучванията. То избори подправят, че това ли. А в България и без тези изследвания е достатъчно човек да се разходи по улиците, за да види, че сме в огромното си мнозинство арийски тип. Нищо чудно, че и изследванията повтарят нещо бездруго очевидно.


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